In 2006, the Australian Institute of Criminology assessed the effectiveness of state and territory drug diversion programs established by the Illicit Drug Diversion Initiative (IDDI) to reduce illicit drug users' contact with the criminal justice system. This report examines programs run by policing agencies. It looks at the structure and effectiveness of Australian state and territory approaches to IDDI programs through comparison of offending behaviour before and after program attendance. The type and number of prior offences, Indigenous status, age, gender and compliance with intervention programs were examined as potential predictors of post-diversion levels of recidivism. While varying in significance between jurisdictions, these issues show their influence in affecting offender numbers, offending frequency, offence type and associated factors.