Most developed countries across the globe have enacted legislation to proscribe acts of money laundering and financing of terrorism, and to enable the proceeds of crime to be recovered from offenders. Such legislation reflects the principles developed by the Financial Action Task Force’s (FATF-GAFI) 40 plus Nine Recommendations to combat money laundering and the financing of terrorism (FATF-GAFI 2004) to varying degrees. FATF-GAFI was established in 1989 as an international body to examine techniques employed by criminals to launder the proceeds of crime and the approaches taken internationally to counteract such activities, as well as to identify policies to impede money laundering and the financing of terrorism. FATF-GAFI issued 40 Recommendations to combat money laundering in 1990 and expanded these to deal with the problem of financing of terrorism after the 11 September 2001 attacks by adding a further Nine Special Recommendations on terrorism financing.
Anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism financing across the globe: A comparative study of regulatory action