This report presents information on deaths in custody in Australian states and territories for the 2005 calendar year, including comparisons by jurisdiction and Indigenous status. Information is also presented on deaths in custody in Australian states and territories between 1980 and 2005 for prison custody and between 1990 and 2005 for police custody and custody-related operations. The report finds that in 2005 there were 54 deaths in custody (47 males and seven females), comprising 34 deaths in prison custody and 20 in police custody and custody-related operations. Fifteen deaths were of Indigenous persons, and three of the 14 hanging deaths with of Indigenous persons. Eight deaths occurred during motor vehicle pursuits (four Indigenous) and six deaths resulted from police shootings (all non-Indigenous). All of the police shootings involved persons whose most serious offence immediately prior to the shooting was a violent offence.