Australian Institute of Criminology

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Crime prevention for migrant communities

Crime prevention series, no.3

Kayleen M Hazlehurst
ISBN 0 642 15514 3 ISSN 1031-5330
Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, January 1990

Abstract

This handbook has been written to provide general information to ethnic and other community groups on community-based crime prevention. Although many of the principles discussed in this booklet could be useful to any community group, the handbook does take into account specific problems and anxieties experienced by migrant minorities. It identifies these, and offers helpful suggestions for communities to overcome these difficulties through designing safer and more friendly environments.

In the past a rather gloomy picture of close-knit migrant communities, particularly in urban or industrial areas, has been painted. Biased media reporting and prejudice in wider society have depicted minority group enclaves as suffering from crime, disorder and inter-cultural conflict.

National prison statistics contradict this impression. Persons who were born overseas but who now reside in Australia, are actually under-represented in Australian prisons. This does not mean that members of immigrant communities do not frequently fall victim to the growing incidence of crime in their localities. Some of this crime is propagated by members of their own community.

Widespread media attention to crime, personal experience of burglary or assault, or threats of violence make residents particularly sensitive to the risks of their own environment. Living in a foreign country, with foreign laws, adds to this uncertainty. Some residents are virtually prisoners of fear.

Where friendly and supportive relations of 'community-life' already exist, however, there are particularly good opportunities for crime prevention. This handbook has been written to provide general information to ethnic and other community groups on community-based crime prevention approaches which can be used to remove some of this uncertainty.

Crime Prevention for Migrant Communities is not a handbook solely for the use of migrant communities. Many of the principles for crime prevention discussed in this booklet are tried and true approaches used widely in Australia and overseas, and could be useful to any community group or agency wishing to consider these techniques.

The handbook, however, does take into account specific problems and anxieties experienced by migrant minorities. It identifies these, and offers helpful suggestions for communities to overcome these difficulties through designing safer and more friendly environments.

Duncan Chappell
Director

  1. To increase community awareness of the potential for crime prevention and to diminish the fear of crime;
  2. To reduce the opportunity and incentive for crime in communities and neighbourhoods;
  3. To help community groups design and run community-based crime prevention programs to meet their specific needs;
  4. To show how these programs can operate effectively to improve the quality of life for individuals, families, and neighbourhoods.
  5. To encourage the planning of crime-reduced environments in communities and neighbourhoods for the future.

We should not ignore serious and harmful crimes in our communities.

We all suffer from them-the victim, the offender and the whole community.

If we work together there are things which we can do about them now, and for the future.

The community : a force for good

There has been a growing interest in restoring community life and community vitality, particularly in built-up urban districts. The sense of 'belonging' which community life brings provides a powerful incentive for dealing with local problems. Community life has the effect of bringing a greater sense of wellbeing and security to residents.

Where a degree of community integration exists-whether it be centred on common ethnicity, a shared religious base, local school activities, or even a social club - citizens can use this as a starting point for organising crime prevention programs. A high-rise apartment, a city suburb, or a country town, can also be the focus for initial get-togethers to discuss crime prevention programs.

Where strong community identity exists along ethnic or religious lines, for instance, commitment largely depends upon decisions of the leaders to add crime prevention to their groups' agendas, and to encourage community participation in these activities.

Where communities are able to take responsibility for local problems, and to participate in programs which they feel provide solutions to those problems, an increasing sense of confidence and mutual support will replace an earlier sense of helplessness and social disorder.

Local residents provide the most important source of wisdom and understanding of local problems and needs. An examination of a community's crime prevention needs can also lead to social developments which may address the underlying causes of some of these problems.

For instance, juvenile delinquency may be seen to be related to boredom and a lack of challenge or recreational facilities for young people in the area. Many disputes and consequent hostilities between neighbours could be settled before they get out of hand through the establishment of simple dispute resolution mechanisms. The isolation and suffering of the elderly, or of single parent families, might be lessened by the activities of Neighbourhood Support Groups.

Preventative, and complementary social development programs, require a degree of community Organisation and participation. Local conditions and the fears of local residents come into play. Those who feel most vulnerable to crime and victimisation are often more likely to distrust new programs and, ironically, to undermine efforts towards crime prevention.

This is an educative process. To be most successful community members need to feel involved, and a part of these developments. An awareness of alternatives and options helps to replace fear with the knowledge that something can be done. This is the first step towards successful crime prevention.

Community care and community responsibility are the foundation stones of community-based crime prevention.

Types of preventative programs

Environmental defence

Planning for crime prevention usually entails some 'situational crime prevention'. That is, practical steps which attend to situations which invite crime, such as locking our doors and windows, securing property and cars, and providing community education in personal safety.

Crime prevention also entails examining our surroundings and taking decisions which will make them safer. Crime prevention by 'environmental design' involves the identification and improvement of dangerous features of our environment-such as dark streets, footpaths or alleys; poorly guarded entrances into buildings; or poorly designed housing which invites break and entry or personal attack.

Social defence

A third, and very important feature of crime prevention is 'social defence' planning. Communities need to examine the underlying reasons behind local crime. Solutions which foster social awareness and community responsibility in individuals, families, and neighbourhoods will have a far-reaching effect in preventing crime.

Social defence planning goes hand-in-hand with strategies for crime prevention and community wellbeing.

Community intervention approaches

Social defence occurs when a community chooses to intervene actively to prevent crime problems. These responses can take several forms.

Crisis intervention

'Crisis intervention' is an approach which may be appropriate as an immediate response to a problem. In personal or family crisis, neighbourhood conflict, or other potentially dangerous situations, specially trained community members can use their skills to intervene and divert a crisis before matters get out of hand.

Some communities set up special support-groups which are prepared to respond to the needs of juveniles, the elderly, or victims of assault and other crime.

Alternative dispute resolution or mediation

In minor crime and civil, neighbourhood or family disputes, 'mediation' or 'dispute resolution' techniques are increasingly being used in Australia.

Disputing parties are brought together in an informal setting to seek to resolve and settle their disputes in a peaceful manner with the help of a neutral mediator. A mediator is not a judge, and does not make decisions about who is right or wrong in the dispute. The parties involved are helped to discuss their problem and to come to a settlement with which they can both agree.

Primary prevention

As its name suggests, a 'primary prevention' approach tries to go to the heart, or the beginning, of the problem and to respond at this level.

For instance, having thought about the underlying causes of juvenile crime in their area, a community might decide to set up sports, recreational, social club and other 'fun' kinds of activities to help their young, and to give them a sense of purpose, pride, and commitment to the community.

Primary prevention is aimed at transforming the individual. It is designed to divert people from negative kinds of activities and to re-channel them into positive, healthy-living kinds of activities (see the video, Primary Prevention for Community Wellbeing, in Appendix V, Kits, manuals, videos and posters).

The advantages of community-based programs

It is only recently that the true value of community life, and our need to preserve it, has been recognised. In addition to providing greater security for members of the community, this emphasis can have very positive effects in modern social life.

If we have the good fortune to live in what we feel to be 'a community' - among friends and relatives from our own cultural, religious or other similar backgrounds, we have a special advantage which can be used to combat crime in our area. If we do not, we may need to establish new ties with our neighbours for this purpose.

Community-based ties can be strengthened by the extension of our personal network to other individuals and groups nearby. A common community project, such as crime prevention, can provide the purpose for setting up a working group for mutual support and for the exchange of information. Community leaders, or specially appointed crime prevention coordinators, can set up meetings where representatives from the neighbourhood can be invited to discuss common concerns.

Crime prevention cannot be separated from the general objective of bringing about a sense of personal security for all members of the community.

Developing a vision for the future

When we choose to prevent crime in our community, we first need a vision of what our community would be like without crime.

We see what is possible, then we use our desire to become what we see. We use our ability to become what we desire. And we use our desire and ability to provide the opportunities, in real life, to realise our vision.

Desire + Ability + Opportunity = Realising our vision

Community responsibility

We can no longer afford to look at crime as simply being the responsibility of the criminal justice system. In the broader context of everyday life, crime flourishes where the social environment is tolerant of crime, where temptations for crime are not kept in check, or where the community will take no action to protect itself either physically or socially against criminal behaviour developing.

A major factor in the growth of crime lies in the growth of opportunity to commit crime. The rise in auto-thefts has accompanied the rise in vehicle ownership. The increase in household burglary has accompanied the increase in ownership of portable radios, TV sets, videos and other electronic items. The introduction and growing use of credit cards, insurance policies, and social security benefits, have created new temptations for fraudulent offences. Street attacks have increased where relationships between people have become impersonal and uncaring.

A preventative approach limits the opportunities for crime. This can be undertaken in several ways: by seeing to the security of housing and street design, by encouraging citizens to be more careful with their belongings, and by encouraging a greater commitment in community members to the quality of life in their area.

Crime prevention teaches people how to identify and to change those aspects of their own environment and behaviour which creates the opportunities for criminal activity.

Removing the desire and opportunity to commit crime

When people are removed from the community and placed in gaol they lose the ability to hurt others through crime.

By removing the ability of individuals to commit crime, crime will be reduced.

Ability + Desire + Opportunity = No Crime

But imprisonment and other penalties have never been very successful in making people change their behaviour. Personal development and personal growth are necessary in order to change behaviour.

Personal development is the growth of a person's physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual nature. Crime prevention through the balancing of these four aspects of human nature represents an effort to change what is going on inside people to make their outward behaviour change. The criminal justice system tries to achieve this through the 'rehabilitation' of offenders.

The community itself can be a powerful source for personal growth.

The community needs to take some responsibility for the education or re-education of its potential or actual criminal elements. The focus for personal development can be on the desire of the person to commit crime. The community can do this by providing alternatives-other ways, and other things for a person to do. We can introduce a new commitment in people to do good things for the community.

By removing the desire of individuals to commit crime, crime will be reduced.

Ability + Desire + Opportunity = No Crime

Similarly, removing the opportunity of people to commit crime through the introduction of the physical security of buildings, better designed streets and buildings, and personal safety, is another way to prevent crime from happening.

By removing the opportunity of individuals to commit crime, crime will be reduced.

Ability + Desire + Opportunity = No Crime

While communities themselves do not have the legal power to lock people up, we all have the power to make efforts to remove the desire and the opportunity of people to commit crime. We can focus on these two things.

Each has benefits and drawbacks. Removing desire will have long-lasting effects, but may take time to show results. There will still be a problem with crime until changes in the person take place. On the other hand, removing opportunities will have immediate effects, but may not have permanent results.

Because each of these ways to prevent crime has strengths and weaknesses, it is best to use them together. By removing desire and opportunity there will be both immediate and long-term results. Crime can be better prevented by integrating these methods.

Preventing crime in our community is both an individual and group decision. Our individual choices have an effect on those around us. By individually choosing to better our community, others may be persuaded to make the same choice.

Crime prevention must start with someone: a person who is committed to realising a vision for a crime free environment. Are you that person?

Social defence planning

In any crime prevention project there must be a willingness for public involvement and intervention into situations which are seen to be undesirable and harmful to community wellbeing.

Crime prevention involves both short-term and long-term planning. It must include the improvement of the means of socialising young people, and in the provision of community education on matters of Australian law and justice, social policy, government services and community resources.

Community and cultural values can be important stabilising forces during the period of migration and settlement in a new country. Plans for community development and social defence can be built on existing traditions and strengths of the community.

The best defence against deviant behaviour developing in the community is to make this a happy, fulfilling, interesting, and supportive environment-the centre for socialisation into values which teach respect for other people's rights and property.

Parents and community leaders can take steps in maximising the development of social values in children from pre-school years onwards. The handling of problems with young people as they arise, in a fair and even-handed way, can do much to prevent the tragedy and loss by serious deviance in the future.

Plans can concentrate on the social needs of a cross-section of community members-adults and youth, the elderly and children, men and women. They can also examine such general needs as health, housing, recreation, and employment.

Community values which encourage self-help, caring support, and cooperation, should be stressed in community-based crime prevention.

Sharing the problems and burdens of community members provides a sure path to effective social defence.

There are a number of special skills, or new tools, which our community group can use to become more effective.

Planning for crime prevention

Like any development, we must plan for crime reduction and prevention. Unplanned, or badly planned action may invite negative social change. Planning must seek to maximise the likelihood of positive change and to be informed of possible negative consequences, so these can be addressed and avoided.

When developing crime prevention programs some flexibility and preparedness for adjustment should be maintained. Trying out different methods and techniques, or a change in the emphasis of concern, is a natural part of experimentation and will broaden community experience in crime prevention approaches.

Remember, in taking action, we must consider our social needs as well as our physical environment.

The working group

In order to realise our vision for crime prevention a group of people needs to be brought together. This 'working group' will be responsible for involving the community, for identifying our problems, and for putting into action solutions to these problems.

A working group is needed to make decisions, to do the work that needs to be done, and to organise community activities. It will also need to monitor the development and running of community prevention programs, and to make adjustments to them when necessary.

An essential part of the working group's responsibilities will be to communicate regularly with the community, to listen to their concerns, and to seek their input and support. Working closely with community members, and with our natural leaders or elders, is central to the successful implementation of these programs.

It is important to involve people who are young and old, male and female, and of many different backgrounds. Every member is unique and can offer different ideas, thoughts and solutions. Anyone who is willing to offer their time, and who is dedicated to the aim of crime prevention, should not be ruled out as a participant in these programs (seeAppendix I, What does a working group do?).

This is a community-based project. Let the community own it.

Ten or twelve people is a good size for a working group, but programs have been started by just two or three interested people. If a lot of people are interested in joining the working group, sub-groups, or a new working party, could be set up to look at specific problems or to run specific programs.

Working groups should meet regularly. Once every two weeks or once a month might be sufficient, although more meetings may be needed at the beginning.

The teamwork approach

One of the vital new tools of a working group will be its teamwork ability. Have the working group attend a team building session with a skilled person from within the community, or with an invited trainer from outside the community. Teamwork building teaches the working group how to work together more effectively.

These sessions may include topics such as: communication skills, how groups get along, group strengths and weaknesses, how to avoid personality conflicts and power struggles, co-operation, problem identification and problem solving, action planning and crisis intervention, dispute resolution, victim support and others.

Try to create a working group with representation from all sectors of the community, or consider setting up more than one team to represent its special interests (such as an adult team, a women's team, a youth team) (seeAppendix II, Training).

Each member of our community is unique and can offer different thoughts, ideas, solutions and talents.

Teamwork gives everyone a chance to make a contribution.

Brainstorming

We need to think about changing the emotional and spiritual environment in which poor health and crime arises, and about promoting an environment where a balanced and happier outlook on life is encouraged.

In the first instance a few people may get together to discuss the setting up of a crime prevention program. Brainstorming, or freely talking about problems, always helps to clarify the issues and to stimulate ideas. Workshops for interested persons could be arranged to involve more people in these discussions.

Primary prevention

Primary prevention promotes healthy lifestyle activities in the community - the kind of activities which help to build self-esteem, community spirit and positive interpersonal relations. Such programs can include sport and recreation, arts and crafts, self-discovery and new skills, and other activities which strengthen and enrich the social base and fabric of the community.

Thinking about prevention in its earliest possible stages is called 'PRIMARY PREVENTION'.

Action planning

Action planning is a vital skill of a working group. It is the planning and staging of action towards a desired goal. A well thought out plan will carry us through the rough patches of a program, particularly in the early stages as we gain our confidence. Some people are naturally good at action planning.

Inter-agency networking

The local Migrant Centre, various welfare, social or health services, youth centres, recreational clubs, schools, tertiary educational institutions, religious groups, Legal Aid Services, the police, or other professional groups may be willing to offer assistance with program ideas and information.

Service agencies are a valuable resource. Some working groups invite agency representatives to join their working group, others simply invite them to come and address the group or to give advice. Networking with, and inviting the input of, service agencies helps our working group to be more informed and to develop better programs for the community.

Local media outlets are also effective tools for bringing people together and for distributing information for crime prevention.

Having other groups to talk with helps us to persevere. In time we will develop local expertise and may be able to assist other community groups set up crime prevention programs (see Appendix III, 'Service agencies and community resources).

Networking with other agencies, sharing information and encouraging crime prevention in other communities, can be enriching and supportive to our local efforts.

Monitoring and evaluation

It is important for the working group to check up on, or to monitor, its own programs and to weigh up how successfiil these have been - to evaluate these programs. This includes encouraging community input and support; maintaining and strengthening communication with the whole community; and evaluating programs to make sure they are meeting the community's vision for its future.

At least once a year, and perhaps even every six months, a working group should examine, and seek community feedback, on their projects. Questions to be asked include:

  • What were the objectives of the program?
  • What were the results of the project-what effect did it have on the identified problem?
  • Did it have any unexpected results? Were these good or bad?
  • How were the results achieved? (Was it by the methods and techniques originally intended, or did these evolve with implementation?)
  • Was there an effective use of community resources?
  • Should our objective or methods be changed?

We can learn from our failures as well as our successes.

Identifying the problems

The first task of the working group is to identify what needs to change in order for our community's vision to be realised. This requires that the working group collect and analyse as much information as necessary to do this.

There are many different ways to gather the information needed, including: looking at records and statistics, conducting person to person interviews, completing surveys or questionnaires, or holding community meetings. For the purposes of this handbook, a community meeting has been described.

The community meeting

The purpose of the community meeting is:

  • to to identify the community vision;
  • to gather information about what crime problems need to be resolved; and,
  • to get community contributions about solutions for these problems. Because the community meeting allows everyone present to talk about their ideas, the information that is gathered will be more representative of the whole community.

Target crime and target offenders

By removing the desire of the individuals (target group), and the opportunities (target crime) to commit the crime, successful crime prevention will occur. Planning the program, therefore, requires that both the target group and the target crime be defined.

The target group

Removing the desire of the target group to commit the crime requires that the reasons why these people want to commit crime be examined.

Criminal behaviour may be explained in many different ways. Often we will see that the spiritual, mental, physical and emotional qualities of the person have been developed unequally, or have not been developed at all, and as a result the person is not complete, is not balanced or healthy.

Many times personal problems such as alcoholism, boredom, or peer pressure, may be partly responsible for causing people to commit the crime. These types of problems will need to be resolved by personal development, and by redirecting people's desire from doing harmful things to doing good things in the community.

Personal development can be achieved through a variety of methods including:

  • guidance by older members of the family and community,
  • peer group meetings or support groups-, and
  • opportunities for individuals to become involved in constructive and rewarding community activities.

Personal development is a continuing process; changes in behaviour will occur as people progress along the path to good health and social wellbeing.

The target crime

Change in a person takes time. The results may last for the rest of that person's life, but will not happen overnight. Therefore, removing the opportunity for crime should also be used. This way there will be immediate effects on the crime problem.

Each crime has many different circumstances, such as: type of crime, how severe it is, when it occurs, where it occurs, who committed the crime, and how it is done.

To be effective in crime prevention, the circumstances of the target crime must first be identified.

Taking away the opportunity to commit a crime involves deciding what kind of environment is necessary to the crime being committed (for example, a dark street, no-one being around, or no-one caring). Change this environment, and the opportunity to commit the crime is considerably reduced.

The circumstances of the crime that are similar in all cases in the community need to be identified. It may be that the majority of offences occur at night, or in a certain area or time, or they may mostly involve family members. The more circumstances that are similar that can be found, the easier it will be to plan a preventative plan of action.

For instance, if it is found that the target crime is vandalism or street assault, which usually:

  • occurs at night;
  • occurs around the school, shopping centre, back streets, pubs;
  • is perpetrated by youth;

then the solution becomes easier to find. Increasing the lighting, or patrolling an area, will take away the opportunity for someone to vandalise a building without being noticed, or to attack a helpless woman on her way home.

If domestic violence and child abuse are the target crimes this may require raising people's awareness that this is harmful to everyone in the community and should no longer be tolerated. The establishment of special intervention teams and/or special support groups to help both offenders and victims may be necessary.

The program that is developed should focus on both the crime and the individuals committing the crime.

Gathering information for prevention

The first job of our crime prevention team is to contact relevant agencies to gather information on crime prevention strategies.

The second job is to take responsibility for setting up community meetings to inform the community about crime prevention and to invite community ideas, support, and participation.

People should be invited to offer a vision for the future of their community, what problems they feel should be handled first, and which goals they would like the working group to adopt.

Community education

Planning for community education should aim at popular participation. This could include group talks, public education exhibitions, audio-visual aids, seminars, and other educational programs. Wide participation may be drawn from schools, community agencies and professionals as well as known community workers and local residents.

What can our community do about these problems? How can people stand together to defeat the effects of drug and alcohol addiction, vandalism and muggings, domestic violence and child abuse? What are the community standards to be on these issues? How much is the community prepared to tolerate before it will act in its own defence?

These are some of the questions which need to emerge from community discussions. They are all serious issues which affect the tone and quality of our daily life. There are other groups and service agencies in our locality which can be called upon to assist in raising public awareness of our options.

The police, also, will assist in providing information to our crime prevention group, will attend public meetings, and will present to our working group information about programs already available. But the choice will ultimately be the community's in what we do about crime in our area.

The purpose of community education is not to sanction the establishment of vigilante defence groups. These have proven to aggravate problems more frequently than to solve them. It is, rather, to provide a for-um for people to develop positive community-based approaches which attack the cause of social ills, as they are understood by the local people. For example, to examine the local causes of alcohol or drug addiction, juvenile delinquency, marital breakdown, urban isolation and friendlessness, rather than their symptoms of theft, robbery, street assault, and suicide. Most of these problems can be traced back to deeper needs in family or community life.

We can make this a learning and strengthening experience for our community. In exploring these issues we will discover something about ourselves.

Shaping our goals

The purpose of community-based discussions on crime prevention, and of consultation with the police and other local agencies, is to identify the nature and frequency of local problems.

In the light of community priorities, we need to construct a plan which addresses these concerns. These goals should be kept simple. It is often better to focus on one or possibly two problems at a time. Once positive change is seen in these areas, new goals and new programs can be set up.

Workshops and training

Our knowledge of crime prevention can be highlighted by setting up special workshops or training sessions for interested community members. We can invite specialists or other volunteers who have some experience of these programs and techniques to speak to us on those subjects which the community feel are important.

It is recommended that training for members of the working group be presented in bite-size portions - working up from simple to the more difficult tasks.

Group sessions could begin with a series of discussions on 'Personal Safety and Household Security', for instance. They could then move on to more complex problems concerning the needs of the elderly, problems of juvenile delinquency, the effects of crime and domestic violence on women and children, and problems of organised crime, corruption, intimidation and extortion.

A plan for action

A plan for action should be drawn up with our goals in mind. We decide what steps we need to take to achieve these goals; who needs to be involved; what kinds of programs we want to set up, and how we plan to go about doing this.

To divide the work up into smaller steps, and to decide who will share the responsibilities for achieving these steps, will make the programs seem easier and within our reach.

Developing para-professionals

With time and experience, our working group will develop its own skilled people who can act as para-professionals, giving advice to other community members, or organisations who may be interested in developing community-based programs for crime prevention in the future.

It has often been the case where participants, who were once seen to be 'the problem' in a community, become so committed to these programs through the changes they have brought in their own lives, that they become their most enthusiastic supporters. This is why it is important not to underestimate the talent or possible contribution of every community member.

A continuing service

The continuing role of our crime prevention working group is to act as a regular problem-solving, and solution-seeking body.

This may involve, at times, the need to act as an interpreter or broker between the community and other agencies or community groups - especially where cultural misunderstandings or conflicts might arise.

Developing skills in intervention and mediation will help the working group negotiate special arrangements and to improve understanding between the parties involved.

Where particularly difficult disputes arise these may need to be referred to an established Dispute Resolution Centre, or Mediation Service set up for this purpose. Referral of problems, and knowing where to seek help, is also an important skill of the working group.

Getting professional evaluation

Our community may like to take this a step further by commissioning a professional evaluation. Inquire with local government agencies, research institutes or universities as to whether a researcher would be interested in assisting with the monitoring and evaluation of our crime prevention project. Be sure to sensitise this researcher towards the community's problems, objectives for change, and planning techniques.

A project of this kind would lend itself well to action-oriented research, that is, research which is involved in the development of the project from the beginning, and which provides input to our crime prevention decision-making.

Explain to the researcher that an analysis of the human and social issues, and future needs of the community, will assist evaluation purposes best. Future decisions on policy, training, community education, and community participation could also benefit from this analysis.

Where it is necessary, or where community needs have changed it may be beneficial to make some changes or adjustments to the program.

The working group should not be disheartened when a program does not achieve community acceptance or success overnight. In any exercise of community development, changes and adjustments are a normal part of growth and learning.

An evaluation of things which have worked, and also which have not worked so well, and why, is an important stage in our experimentation with community development and crime prevention.

Working together

People need to be alerted to the warning signs of suspicious circumstances in their neighbourhood, and they need to be taught how to deal with these situations.

In planning for crime prevention, there will be an inevitable strengthening of community ties for mutual protection. Close-knit communities have an advantage in this respect.

Working with the police for crime prevention

The most significant environmental defence program which has been developed in recent years is Neighbourhood Watch, and its related programs of Business Watch, Country Watch, Safe Houses and Victim Support schemes. These programs have been developed and refined in several countries and throughout Australia over recent years. They require the community to work with the police and other agencies for crime prevention in their area.

The local police station will provide more information on these programs. We can invite police officers to visit and speak with our working group and community, and to give some guidance on how to set up these programs.

The working group may also wish to collaborate with other agencies - school teachers, welfare workers, Migrant Centre officers, health workers and others.

Reducing the opportunity

Crime can be divided, broadly, into two categories. 'Serious' crimes include murder, terrorism, kidnapping, rape, extortion, arson, armed robbery, and drug related offences. The public expect, and generally receive prompt response from the police to these crimes.

The second category includes random and opportunist forms of crime - such as burglary, vandalism, muggings, shoplifting, vehicle theft, and other forms of theft or common assault. Many of these crimes are made possible by carelessness, uninformed business practices, or a lack of personal safety.

The best defence against crime is to remove whatever tempts and invites criminal activity. This includes examining our own behaviour.

An open door or an unlocked window, for instance, can be an immediate invitation to break and entry. Walking home alone along a dark street may invite attack.

By a process of self-help and public awareness, communities and neighbourhoods can reduce their vulnerability to a large proportion of offending.

Protective communities

In recent years Neighbourhood Watch and similar schemes have significantly reduced the number of burglaries, break-ins, and thefts as a result of increased community diligence, whereas, in other areas, these offences have been seen to be on the increase.

Neighbourhood Watch primarily concentrates on educating the public in ways of securing their buildings, property and personal wellbeing through the sensible use of locks, lighting, alarms and protective behaviour. A protective community teaches its members to be on the alert, to be concerned about the welfare of neighbours, and to know what to do when something 'seems wrong'.

These schemes have increased the commitment of members to improve the quality of life in their neighbourhood; to protect their homes, businesses, and personal property; and to introduce a greater sense of security and neighbourliness.

Working groups provide the focus for the co-ordination of these efforts, and for structuring a partnership between the community and the police in reducing crime.

This 'pro-active', or problem-solving, approach contrasts with the 'reactive' or incident driven approach which once dominated police/community relations. It is a far healthier approach, and returns to the community a sense of control over their own environment and future wellbeing.

Crime prevention mechanisms are not a substitute for existing policing services. We will still need their surveillance and assistance. We must also beware of a fortress mentality developing - watchdogs, alarms, locks and lights - where people shut themselves away from the world outside. To prevent this a community will need to build up a network of mutual trust and support between its members.

Safety House

Community-care support groups

How many times have we heard people say 'I don't understand the law', or 'I am frightened of crime'? Whenever we look closely at a problem we will always find a need. So often this is a need for information, and a need for comfort and reassurance that others care.

Support groups are collections of caring people. Support groups have worked well in providing assistance, and a listening ear to those who are suffering.

Where there is suffering, fear or uncertainty the setting up of support groups can be very beneficial.

Women's support and child support groups

Community support groups which help people who have experienced assault, domestic violence or child abuse can take many roles. In the first instance they can make a public statement of disapproval of violence (an important step in refusing to tolerate this kind of crime).

They can act to defuse domestic disputes with sound reasoning, by helping to talk people through their problems, and by referring them to professional help. The development of crisis intervention skills and dispute resolution skills are central to this. They may also provide shelter and protection to those suffering from chronic or severe abuse through setting up women's and children's refuges.

Men's support and youth support groups

Support groups can also focus on teenagers or men in need. People who suffer from deep rage and frustration need help to channel and cope with these feelings. They need the support of people who understand to tell these feelings to. Peer group programs are particularly constructive in this regard. 'Teenage Support Groups', 'Youth Crime Prevention' teams and 'Men Against Violence' groups have been very successful in helping offenders learn to understand the source of their personal problems and how to cope with them without resorting to hurting themselves or others.

Victim's support and elderly support groups

These support groups can focus on helping people who have suffered from violence, other crime or the fear of crime. It is often not realised that a victim can go on suffering long after the event of a crime, or even after having heard about a crime in the neighbourhood. They can remain fearful, they may lose their confidence, or they may begin to blame others around them and lose their trust.

Support groups will not only give participants (victims and offenders) the help they personally need, but may also give them a new purpose and appreciation of others.

After experiencing the benefits of a support group some participants become enthusiastic and commifted to the group and try to help others like themselves.

Personal safety

Some people, particularly the elderly, are virtual 'prisoners of fear'. They feel they must stay at home. Even walking to the shops seems threatening. Crime divides the community - makes people distrustful and can lead to a terrible loss in community spirit. People avoid ordinary social exchange, are suspicious of each other, and are less likely to take an interest in public events.

Simple precautions can be taken which avoid personal risk and danger. The 'buddy system' (shopping in twos or threes, walking home with a friend after dark, driving or taking a taxi together); avoiding dangerous or lonely places; carrying money and valuables in a small purse on the inside of clothing which cannot be easily grabbed, are some of the techniques of personal safety which we can adopt.

The numbers of attacks on children have fallen where schools and communities have worked together in teaching children personal safety, talking to them about 'stranger danger', and working together to provide 'Safe Houses' where children can seek help during the hours they are walking to and from school. Children, like adults, need home safety knowledge - what to do when a stranger telephones or comes to the door what to do if there is an accident at home, and who they can call for help. (Police representatives will give many helpful suggestions for personal safety).

Old feuds - new country

Because of Australian government policy towards a multicultural Australia most of us have some neighbours who are from a different cultural background from our own.

Street relations may also be complicated by inter-ethnic living. If our neighbours seem 'foreign' we may be nervous or uncertain about them. Sometimes we bring with us traditional ill-feeling, feuds and prejudice towards other ethnic groups, or we may feel that they have ill-feeling towards us, and show this on the street, in school playgrounds, or at the workplace.

Racial or inter-cultural tension brings unhappiness to everyone. Australia is a new country. It offers us a new start, new opportunities, and new ways to overcome old feuds. The seed to resolution and peace with our new neighbours lies in community-based action.

Familiarity and friendship overcomes 'foreignness' and 'strangeness'. We can seek out the co-operation of the leaders of other groups in our neighbourhood for the common good.

Harassment or racial attack

Harassment, racial attacks, and intimidation can be dealt with. In serious cases these should be reported to the police. See if there is a police/ethnic liaison unit in the area which specialises in these kinds of problems.

Sometimes ill-feeling is based upon misunderstandings which get worse because they have not been addressed directly. Other times it is just two or three people making trouble for everyone.

Our nearest Dispute Resolution Centre, Mediation Service, or Community Justice Centre may be able to help arrange a series of discussions - or community peace talks - on the matters which are causing disruption between our community and another community group (seeAppendix V, Hazlehurst 1989).

Violence-free families

In studies done in Australia and overseas it has been found that a significant proportion of persons in prison have experienced some form of violence or abuse in their childhood. 'Abuse' can include physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect to provide basic necessities, and sexual abuse.

Cycles of abuse and domestic violence are closely related to personal distress and isolation. Abused parents or spouses are very often repeating patterns of abuse which they learnt as children. They need special help and courage to 'stop the cycle' at their generation.

Adults and parents with little or no community support are most vulnerable to 'take things out' on each other or the kids. Some of the things which can trigger abuse include: isolation, financial or work related stress, family worries, a lack of parenting skills, drug or alcohol problems, and bad childhood experiences.

People who have experienced abuse may incur physical injury or even brain damage. They will certainly suffer from emotional problems, and will have difficulty trusting and learning to socialise with others. Their sense of rage and hostility may even lead them to act violently towards family members or other members of society. Some may even die.

In Australia violent assault, whether it occurs on the street or within the walls of the family home, is illegal. The community has a moral and legal responsibility to communicate to its members that this kind of behaviour is not an acceptable means to solve family problems or disputes.

Domestic violence and child abuse hurts everyone. It hurts thee victim and the family involved, it hurts the abuser, and sooner or later the community will suffer as well. There is no justification for domestic violence and child abuse.

How to set up a community response

Helping networks

The community can act as a focus of prevention for the kinds of offences which occur in the home. Non-violent means for the settlement of problems should be made available to community members in times of family crisis or emotional distress. These dangerous patterns can be broken down through non-threatening daily interaction with their peers.

Natural helping networks at the local level can be called on to set up special support groups for parents in crisis, for victims of domestic violence and child abuse, and for offenders themselves. For instance the already mentioned 'Men Against Violence' committees-a kind of Alcoholics Anonymous for violent men-have worked very well in helping people share their problems, learn to examine their own feelings and to learn new ways of dealing with rage.

Family life programs

Some groups develop Family Life Programs, which provide support, advice and comfort to participants. Issues, such as child raising, marital problems and divorce, legal rights, domestic violence, adolescence, drugs and alcohol addiction, family budgeting, work stress, government services, and many other subjects are discussed in an informal, and safe setting. Participants are invited to share their problems with the group in a friendly atmosphere, and to learn coping skills through understanding and mutual support.

Intervention

There are times when protective communities will need to intervene in situations which they know are dangerous. It is important to develop in the community people with crisis intervention and dispute resolution skills. The working group can look into where such courses are available, or can organise seminars and training in these skills for interested participants.

Alternative Dispute Resolution Services provide experienced services for peaceful intervention for many family disputes, juvenile and parent problems, in divorce and separation settlement, and even between whole communities in dispute.

Information about training in crisis intervention, mediation and dispute resolution skills for community members could be sought through Alternative Dispute Resolution or other Mediation Services in the area. For a list of such services see Violence, Disputes and their Resolution leaflet (Hazlehurst 1989), in the Suggested Readings section (Appendix V).

There are also a number of local agencies which provide crisis intervention services and which can provide information and assistance to the community, see list of Service Agencies and Community Resources, Appendix III.

Remember, isolation guarantees that the cycle of abuse will continue, both within the family and into the next generation. A protective community needs to uphold two principles to its members. Firstly, 'We all have a right to feel safe'; and secondly, 'there is nothing so awful that we cannot talk with someone about it'.

Abusing spouses or parents need help and sympathetic support. It is their right to have this help when they need it, just as it is the right of the victim not to be abused.

Children and juveniles

Frequent newspaper stories of widespread vandalism, street offences, drug addiction, and conflicts between 'juvenile gangs' of different ethnic or social backgrounds, alert us to problems of young people growing up in today's society. Some of the reasons for this which have been given speak of young people with too much time on their hands, or not enough opportunities for personal development.

Studies have shown that children who miss school or who fail in their class work are more likely to become involved in delinquent activities than those who succeed at school. Truancy and juvenile disruption is also related to the drift of such pupils into criminal careers later in life.

The ability of the family, the community, and schools to encourage and motivate young people, and to integrate them into the social life around them, will largely determine the degree to which they are exposed to the risk of delinquency.

Schools might be able to take part in the working group's local crime prevention initiatives; in the identification of 'at risk' children3- and in the development of good character and social values in young people through community-based, primary prevention programs.

One of the greatest tragedies is when a family or a community loses its young to the criminal justice system.

Primary prevention for community wellbeing

Primary Prevention measures can be particularly constructive where young people are concerned: especially if they are introduced before problems have set in.

Bored children or young people often commit offences for 'kicks'. We need to think of other forms of recreation which are more constructive and less harmful to the community and the individual concerned.

Introducing a variety of other activities for young people - sports, dances, arts and crafts, picnics, excursions, learning experiences and so forth-diverts the energies of young people away from bad activities into good activities. They provide the opportunity for the young to learn to prize family and community approval.

We need talented leaders for the future. Participation in community programs helps to develop leadership qualities in the young. Young people make good team leaders and enthusiastic team members. They know their own problems, and have lots of ideas and energy. They could be encouraged to set up 'Youth Against Crime' working groups, to run programs such as 'Anti-drugs Campaigns', and to develop fun activities for their age group.

Organised crime

Organised crime is worrying to everyone. Overseas-based criminal syndicates have penetrated Australia by using legal and illegal avenues for migration to this country, to the disadvantage of honest immigrants.

Without public support it is particularly difficult for the police to break the stand-over tactics, drug operations, prostitution and other rackets run by organised criminals.

The fear which these ruthless organisations inspire, and the 'code of silence' which they expect from those they are intimidating, mean they can continue their reign of terror and grow stronger without resistance.

Some of these criminals have made their own countrymen the victims of their illegal dealings, using blackmail and extortion to ensure their silence. Other people have been drawn into their illegal activities, such as lodging fraudulent Social Security or insurance claims. These are seen as serious offences in Australia.

Even where a minor offence has been committed, perhaps on entry into this country, some criminal elements may use this to subject people to years of blackmail, and threats that they will be reported to the authorities.

In these cases it is better to confess to the minor offence, to clear the slate completely, than to be trapped into committing further crime through blackmail and necessity. The police and the courts will usually take these circumstances into consideration.

Knowing our rights and obligations

A community which is better informed about Australian law, and of the relevant dangers of ignorance of the law, is less likely to fall victim to the activities of organised crime.

Australian law is there for the protection of every resident in Australia. Migrant communities have as much right to the protection of the law as any other Australian citizens or residents. Helping and co-operating with the police in criminal investigations is the only way to rid the community of organised crime, and the never-ending worry which this entails.

In some regions police have set up special multi-lingual telephone services for confidential discussions of these dilemmas, and for the anonymous reporting of illegal activities. We can ask questions and get information from these services without declaring our identity, to help us decide what is the best course to take. A lawyer may also help on these matters.

We all have a right to benefit from the fruits of honest labour, and to live free from the fear of threat or intimidation. These sorts of issues should be discussed openly in the community.

We should be informed of our rights and obligations under Australian law, and new arrivals should be warned of the dangers and pitfalls of organised crime.

Be informed. Help protect our community's future from organised crime.

The community's investment in reform

Sentencing options

One area in which the community may not have considered action for crime prevention is in the area of community-based sentencing options and prisoner aftercare.

It is well known that prison sentences and fines are not highly successful at reforming attitudes and behaviour in offenders. If anything, the experience of prison, and of mixing with other prisoners, tends to have adverse effects. Fines tend to punish innocent members of the family as well as the offender.

As a future investment in crime prevention, the community has a strong interest in preventing repetitive offending, or recidivism, among its members. In some states in Australia, new pre-trial diversion and community service order schemes have been used instead of fines or imprisonment for a range of minor offences.

Through these schemes an offender performs some specific service to the community as restitution for an offence. These programs (such as painting local buildings, helping in old people's homes, mending broken windows at a school, digging drains) work particularly well among first offenders and juvenile offenders.

In paying back the community for the offence, community service helps restore the offender's self-esteem and sense of responsibility towards the community. Communities can make it known to local authorities (police, courts, corrections) that they would be willing to have community-service work done in their area.

Post-release schemes

Post-release schemes also provide a means by which a community can seek to break the cycle of recidivism.

When persons recently released from gaol are met by a support group which will help them find a place to stay, find a job and help them through the first difficult few months following their release, they are far less likely to resort to re-offending. These programs seek to re-integrate offenders into the community after they have served a period of time in gaol.

To a receptive offender the community offers the most valuable environment for rehabilitation, penance and reform.

Identifying community resources

Every community has a social infrastructure - an interlocking set of organisations, resources, kinship groups and personal relationships between people.

To help form the working group and to implement the community's plan, list community members and agencies who might be able to help. (For suggested contacts, see list of Service Agencies and Community Resources, Appendix III).

This list should represent a cross-section of the community such as elders, youth, active and respected members, religious leaders, welfare workers, legal aid officers, court staff, health workers, child welfare workers, police and other professionals.

This will help the working group understand the infrastructure of the community and to identify resources in, or around the community, which can be called upon for crime prevention.

  1. The Vision. The working group is responsible for shaping the vision of the community. This involves asking the people what they want for themselves and for their children in the future. A community meeting could be called for this purpose.
  2. Identifying the problems. The second step is to identify problem areas that contribute to crime. For example, youth vandalism may be the crime problem identified, and lack of recreational facilities as a cause of crime; domestic violence or child abuse could be seen as a crime problem, and excessive drinking, boredom, or lack of self-esteem could be seen as some of the reasons for these crimes.
  3. Seeking Solutions. The working group is responsible for seeking answers to the crime problems it has identified. This could include asking for community ideas, looking at what other communities have done, utilising agency help, and reviewing written materials to consider solutions to the identified problems. A plan to achieve the community's vision is then developed from the chosen strategies.
  4. Action Planning. It is the working group's responsibility to recruit volunteers, work with the leaders of the community, invite agency input, find money (if necessary), delegate responsibilities, rally community support, gather necessary resources, organise training, and any other tasks that are required to implement the plan.
    Community education is an important part of this process. It may be necessary to raise the community's awareness of the environment in which they live, and how they can make it a safer place through practical preventative measures.
  5. Establishing Support Groups. Through the establishment of special support groups, the working group should be able to help victims of crime, and urge healing activities for offenders and the rest of the community. Through activities and liaison work the working group will help reduce the fear of crime, and encourage people's participation in actively solving crime problems and in giving their support to positive programs for prevention.
  6. Monitoring and Evaluation. It is important for the working group to check up on, or to 'monitor' its own programs; and to weigh up how successful these have been - to 'evaluate' these programs.
    This includes encouraging community feedback, strengthening communication with the whole community, and making sure they are meeting the community's vision for its future.
  7. Making Changes. Where it is necessary, or where community needs have changed, it may be beneficial to make some changes or adjustments to our programs. The working group should not be disheartened when a program does not achieve community acceptance or success overnight. In any exercise of community development, changes and adjustments are a normal part of growth and learning.

1 - Hints and training techniques

Below is a list of points and techniques which trainers can include in their community-based training programs.

  • Ice breaking exercises
  • Clear explanations, practical examples
  • Use of visual materials (posters, whiteboard, butcher's paper and pens, videos)
  • Grounding discussions in community experiences
  • Community ownership of problems and solutions
  • Brainstorming (workshop activities)
  • Group exercises to practice new skills (that is, the use of role modelling)
  • Listing goals (short simple sentences)
  • Team building
  • Action planning
  • Above all, HAVING FUN!

2 - New skills training

Below are listed new skills which can be introduced to the working group through special training programs (either offered by local or visiting trainers, or through 'learning by doing' kinds of activities based on information gathering by the group).

These new skills will make our working group special, by making it more effective and a source of inspiration to other community members.

Training in new skills for the working group could include:

  • Teamwork and Team Building
  • Communication Techniques
  • Problem Solving
  • Action Planning
  • The Primary Prevention Approach
  • Crisis Intervention
  • Dispute Resolution and Mediation
  • Negotiation
  • Setting up Support Groups
  • Networking and working with other groups

As there is not space to give specific addresses of all services in each state and territory, and because the names of these services may vary slightly from one state to another, a general list only of the kinds of services which may be able to give assistance is given here.

Migrant services

Telephone Interpreter Services
Migrant Resource Centre
Police Ethnic Liaison Units

Public information services

Citizens Advice Bureaux
Community Centres
Government Information Services

Welfare services

Department of Community Welfare
Department of Family Services
Department of Health
Local Community Health Services
Community Health Centres
Women's Health Services

Crisis Intervention Services

Alcoholics Anonymous
Lifeline
Crisis Care Centres
Women's or Youth Refuges
Victims of Crime Associations
Sexual Assault Support Services
Crisis Intervention Units
Drug Referral Centres
Rape Crisis Centres

Dispute Resolution Services

Community Justice Centres
Alternative Dispute Resolution Centres
Neighbourhood Mediation Services
Family Mediation Services

Child and Youth Support Services

Lifeline
Youth Refuges
Police Youth Programs or Juvenile Aid Sections
Child, Adolescent and Family Health Services
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services
Child Protection Units
Incest Centres
Schools

Family support services

Marriage Guidance Services
Family Counselling Services
Parents Support Groups
Domestic Violence Centres
Parents Against Sexual Assault

General

Hospitals
Police Department or local police stations
- Juvenile Aid Sections
- Ethnic Liaison Units
Salvation Army or other church groups
YMCA and YWCA
T.A.F.E. Colleges or local schools
Kindergartens and Child Care Centres
Shire Councils or other Local government agencies

References

Other materials

  • Briggs, Freda 1986, Child Sexual Abuse-Confronting the Problem, Pitman, Melbourne.
  • Daley, Pat 1987, The Neighbourhood Crime Prevention Handbook, Angus and Robertson Publishers, Unit 4, Eden Park, 31 Waterloo Road, North Ryde, NSW 2113. (recommended reading for communities wanting to set up Neighbourhood Watch and similar programs).
  • NRMA 1987, Car Theft: Putting on the Brakes, Proceedings of Seminar on Car Theft, NRMA, Sydney in association with the Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.
  • NRMA Make Life Hell for a Car Thief, public education campaign, NRMA, Sydney.
  • NSW Department of Housing 1987, Home Security Policy, Government Printer, Sydney.
  • Queensland Centre for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, a series of leaflets and posters which include: Facts about Child Abuse; Facts about Child Neglect; Facts about Emotional Abuse of Children; Facts about Physical Abuse of Children; Facts about Sexual Abuse of Children; Prevention of Child Abuse: A new Strategy; Facts about Personal Safety; GPO Box 806, Brisbane, Qld. 4001. ph. (07) 224 7588.
  • Stannard, Bruce 1986, How to Beat the Burglar, Ellsyd Press, Sydney.
  • Vincent, Christine 1984, Teenage Runaways: What Can a Parent Do?, YMCA Outreach, Frankston, Melbourne, Vic.

Kits, manuals, videos and posters

  • Briggs, Freda 1988, Keep Children Safe: a book for grown-ups who want to protect children from the risks of child sexual abuse and other dangers. Longman Cheshire Pty Ltd, Longman House, Kings Gardens, 95 Coventry Street, Melbourne, Vic. 3205.
  • Care for a Child Care for Yourself. child protection information kit (posters and leaflets for adults). Department of Community Welfare, Adelaide, SA.
  • Care Kit, (teacher's manual, puppets, and pictorial cards for school children). 36 Ophir Street, Orient Point, Nowra, NSW 2540.
  • Crime Prevention for Aboriginal Communities (illustrated manual) by Kayleen M. Hazlehurst (1989): a guide to the fundamental steps in teamwork and community-based crime prevention for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities; with
  • Primary Prevention for Community Wellbeing (30 minute video). The video is based on an interview with drug and alcohol adviser and registered nurse, Jean Jans, with community illustrations of primary prevention approaches for healthier communities. Australian Institute of Criminology, GPO Box 2944, Canberra ACT 2601 (for manual and video package).
  • Educational Media Australia, Something You Call Unique (48 minute video), 7 Martin Street, South Melbourne, Vic. 3205; ph. (03) 699 7144.
  • 'Family Violence Kit' (collection of leaflets); and What Can I Do About Violence In My Home (handbook in 13 difference languages). Community Education Task Force on Family Violence, Level 21, 555 Collins St., Melbourne, Vic. 3000; ph. (03) 616 7545.
  • Hugs and Kids, (video), available for loan at the State Film and Video Library of South Australia, 113 Tapleys Hill Road, Hendon SA 5014.
  • 'Keeping Ourselves Safe' (manuals and videos): complete safety program for primary and secondary aged children. Produced by New Zealand Police and the Education Department. The Curriculum Officer, New Zealand Police Headquarters, Private Bag, New Zealand.
  • Kids Can Say No, (20 minute video and two books): designed to show to 5-11 year olds with responsible adults at home or in small groups at school. Rolf Harris explores 'Yes' feelings and 'No' feelings using children's examples from everyday life. Children are encouraged to find ways to stay safe. Available from Rolf Harris Video, 43 Drury Lane, Undon, WC2 B SRT 36, UK, also available from Austra-video, 2 Drewery Place, Melbourne, Vic. 3000 (ph. (03) 663 5728); or P.O. Box 913, Tauranga New Zealand, ph. (075) 82 670.
  • National Association for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, (colour posters and T-shirts), 14 Conyngham St., Glenside, SA.
  • 'Neighbourhood Watch kits': crime prevention program. Contact your local police station or Police Department.
  • Office of Status of Women: leaflets and information on domestic violence. Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, Barton, Canberra, ACT 2600. ph. (06) 271 5722.
  • 'Safety House kits': child safety program. New South Wales Police Department (or local police stations, NSW).
  • Positive Parenting. series of 4 videos. Friends of CAFHS, 295 South Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000. ph. (08) 236 0414.
  • Youth Justice Coalition: (information kit on juvenile justice and needs of youth), c/- NCOSS, 66 Albion Street, Surry Hills, NSW 2010.

For leaflets and posters the following agencies might also be contacted: Sports and Recreation, Police, Community Services and Welfare, Alcohol and Drug Foundation, Department of Health, Department of Education, Women's Groups or special services, Department of Education, Migrant Centres.

Bibliography

  • Australian Institute of Criminology 1977, Proceedings of the United Nations Inter-regional Training Course on Crime Prevention Planning, held in Sydney 10-14 November 1975, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.
  • Australian Institute of Criminology 1978, Report on the United National Course: Human Rights in the Administration of Criminal Justice, held in Canberra, 29 November-17 December 1976, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra,
  • Cornish, Derek B. & Clarke, Ronald V. 1986, 'Situational Prevention, Displacement of Crime and Rational Choice Theory', in Situational Crime Prevention: From Theory into Practice, K. Heal & G. Laycock (eds) Home Office Research and Planning Unit, London, pp. 1-16.
  • Graham, John 1988, Schools, Disruptive Behaviour and Delinquency: A Review of Research, Research and Planning Unit, Home Office Research Study no 96, London.
  • Harrold, Kay 1987, Towards a Preventative Model of Child Maltreatment, Discussion Paper no. 4. Research and Evaluation Branch, Department of Children's Services, Brisbane.
  • Heal, Kevin & Laycock, Gloria 1986 (eds), Situational Crime Prevention: From Theory into Practice, Home Office Research and Planning Unit, London.
  • Clarke, R.VG. & Mayhew, P. (eds) 1980, Designing out Crime, HMSO, London.
  • Maxfield, Michael G. 1984, Fear of Crime in England and Wales, Home Office Research Study no. 78, Home Office Research and Planning Unit, London.
  • Skogan, Wesley G. & Maxfield, Michael B. 1981, Coping with Crime: Individual and Neighbourhood Reactions, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills/ I-ondon. .
  • West, D. J. 1982, Delinquency: its roots, careers and prospects, Heinemann, London.