Australian Institute of Criminology

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Appendixes

Appendix 1: Interview questions

Interview schedule for licensees, premise managers and bar staff
In your view what are the key issues facing the effective management of licensed premises in the ACT?  
What do you think is the most important role for policing in contributing to the safe management of licensed premises in entertainment precincts?  
What are your views regarding existing approaches to policing licensed premises in entertainment precincts in the Kingston/Manuka areas and the Civic area? Do you think these have improved over the past 5 years?  
What other interventions are currently being delivered by your premises or other related organisations in Kingston/Manuka and Civic that aim to reduce the harm associated with the over consumption of alcohol in entertainment precincts? For example one licensee has informed me that they undertake their own lockouts from midnight onwards.  
How do you think police can encourage greater compliance with liquor licensing regulations among those licensees who do not comply with regulations?  
What impact do you think police have had on patron drinking behaviour over the recent summer period? Do you think they can have any impact in the future? In your view, how does this level of impact compare to previous years efforts by the police?  
What do you think are the main alcohol-related harms in entertainment precincts? For example intoxication, alcohol-related violence etc  
Part of our project is concerned with how alcohol-related problems are measured and whether these measures are appropriate. Police statistics are often used as the key indicators of alcohol-related problems in entertainment precincts. Do you think these measures accurately gauge what these problems are and are there any other measures you think would be better utilised?  
What else do you think the police or related agencies could do to improve the issues surrounding unruly patron behaviour, alcohol-related harms and public safety?  
Is there any other areas or issues relating to this topic that you would like to discuss that has not already been covered? For example matters pertaining to the possible legislative changes in the ACT or ask how difficult is it to refuse someone alcohol who is too intoxicated, do they wish they could use the law (RSA) in this setting?  
Interview schedule for ACTP and ORS
What are the key issues in your view with respect to the effective management of licensed premises in entertainment precincts?  
What do you think is the most important role for policing in contributing to the safe management of licensed premises in entertainment precincts?  
What existing policing strategies are being delivered in [intervention and control] entertainment precincts?  
What are your views regarding existing approaches to policing licensed premises in entertainment precincts in [intervention and control site]?  
What other policing strategies would you like to see trialled in these areas?  
What challenges do police face in attempting to deliver strategies targeted at licensed premises?  
What in your view are the key features of a successful policing strategy targeted at licensed premises?  
How do you currently monitor the implementation and impact of policing strategies? What are the key indicators of alcohol-related harms in entertainment precincts?  
What additional data sources or collection methods could be used to monitor the impact of policing strategies?  
How do you think police can encourage greater compliance with liquor licensing regulations [OPTIONAL]?  
What impact do you think police have or can have on patron drinking behaviour?  
What other non-policing interventions are currently being delivered in [intervention and control site] that aim to reduce the harm associated with the consumption of alcohol in entertainment precincts?  
What are the key agencies police should be working with to develop policing strategies in entertainment precincts, and what is or should be the nature of that relationship?  

Appendix 2: Observational research guidelines

Risk factors and licensed premises

Name of licensed premise:

Researcher:

Table 5: Risk factors for licensed premises—circle all that apply
Patron characteristicsVenue characteristicsSocial environmentStaffing characteristicsWider environment

Heavily intoxicated

Greater proportion of males

Presence of males in groups, especially strangers to one another

Heavy drinkers

Younger patrons, including those that are underage

Greater proportion of unkempt patrons and patrons from marginal groups

Patrons exhibiting signs of being less agreeable, more impulsive and angry

Queues or line ups outside the building

Patrons hanging around outside venue at closing

Queues for public transport

Venues with larger capacity

Poorly maintained and unpleasant decor

Unclean or messy

Poor or low levels of lighting

Crowding that inhibits movement around the venue, including around the bar

Frequent patron movement

Higher noise level

Poor ventilation and high temperature

Inadequate or uncomfortable seating

Inconvenient access to the bar

Heavy drinking and high levels of intoxication

Generally permissive environment with high levels of rowdy behaviour

Expectation that aggression will be tolerated

Hostile atmosphere

Macho culture

Patron boredom

Underage drinking

Presence of competitive games

Dancing

Sexual activity, contact and competition

Drink promotions

Limited availability of food

Other illegal activities, such as drug dealing

High proportion of male staff

Low staff-to-patron ratio

Lack of responsible serving practices

Refusing service to already intoxicated patrons

Drinking by staff

Greater number of staff adopting confrontational approach to venue management

Aggressive security staff

Poor coordination of staff

Poor monitoring and control of minor incidents

Limited ability to control or defuse situations

Lack of professionalism by security staff

Serving several drinks to patrons at closing

Younger security staff

High density of licensed premises

High levels of movement in and out of premises

Entry and ejection practices for aggressive patrons

Unfair or confrontational entry practices

Conflict between social groups emerging from or congregating around venues

Poor management of cluster points such as bus stations, taxi ranks, food outlets

Congestion points as crowds leave venues (especially at closing time)

Additional comments:

Appendix 3: Performance indicators for policing licensed premises

Table 6: Performance indicators for monitoring the operation and impact of policing strategies targeting licensed premises

What collaborative strategies have implemented by ACTP to reduce alcohol-related violence in entertainment precincts?

Indicators of proactive policing activity may include:

  • number of workshops with licensees, attendance rate at these workshops, and attendees satisfaction with workshop content
  • frequency of contact with licensees during pre-arranged visits
  • nature and frequency of correspondence with licensees
  • number of actions taken to regulate licensees (formal meeting, phone calls, letter etc)
  • nature and scope of media/marketing strategies targeting patrons
  • extent to which proactive activity is targeted based on operational intelligence
  • ACTP satisfaction with the proactive strategies that were implemented
  • stakeholder satisfaction with police proactive response to alcohol-related problems

Review of project documentation relating to key policing strategies

Observations of policing activity in entertainment precincts

Feedback from key personnel through interviews regarding their perceptions of policing in the entertainment precinct

What enforcement strategies have implemented by ACTP to reduce alcohol-related violence in entertainment precincts?

Indicators of police enforcement activity may include:

  • nature and frequency of operations targeting entertainment precincts
  • ACTP Beats team activity in and around licensed premises, including high-visibility patrols
  • nature and frequency of compliance inspections (involving police)
  • number of warnings (formal or informal) issued for minor breaches of licensing provisions
  • number of police referrals to ORS relating to breaches of licensing provisions
  • number of infringement or penalty notices issued to licensees, staff or patrons for breaches of liquor licensing legislations (where applicable)
  • number of prosecutions (successful and non-successful) against licensees for more serious of sustained non-compliance with liquor licensing legislation or regulations (where applicable)
  • number of apprehensions (ie arrests) relating to alcohol-related offences
  • clearance rates for alcohol-related offences
  • extent to which enforcement activity is targeted based on operational intelligence
  • ACTP satisfaction with the enforcement strategies that were implemented
  • stakeholder satisfaction with police enforcement response to alcohol-related problems

ORS administrative data on formal actions taken in response to breaches of liquor licensing

Review of project documentation relating to key policing strategies

Observations of policing activity in entertainment precincts

Feedback from key personnel through interviews regarding their perceptions of policing in the entertainment precinct

To what extent is the ACTP approach to policing licensed premises consistent with good practice?

Extent to which the ACTP approach is consistent with best practice principles

Feedback from key personnel through interviews regarding their perceptions of policing in the entertainment precincts

To what extent has ACTP worked effectively with relevant stakeholders to address alcohol-related problems?

Nature of collaborative strategies involving police and external stakeholders

Extent to which police and relevant stakeholders perceive relationship as both positive and beneficial

Feedback from key personnel through interviews regarding their views of the relationship between police and [relevant agency]

What impact does improved intelligence relating to the problems associated with licensed premises have on the capacity of police to address alcohol-related problems in entertainment precincts

Number of PLD forms completed

Ratio of PLD forms completed, relative to the total number of incidents in and around licensed premises attended by police during peak entertainment periods

Extent to which PLD forms are used to inform proactive or enforcement strategies

AIC PLD form database

ACTP PROMIS data

Feedback from relevant ACTP personnel

What impact do the proactive policing and enforcement strategies delivered as part of the ACTP response to alcohol-related crime in entertainment precincts have on the level of compliance with liquor licensing legislation and regulations?

Licensee perceptions of the risks associated with non-compliance

Actual levels of compliance with liquor licensing provisions:

  • number of infringement or penalty notices issued to licensees, staff or patrons for breaches of liquor licensing legislations (where applicable)
  • number of prosecutions (successful and non-successful) against licensees for more serious of sustained non-compliance with liquor licensing legislation or regulations (where applicable)

Patron and business operators’ perceptions of responsible service and premised management practices

Reported changes to premise management practices based on ACTP intervention

Feedback from key personnel through interviews regarding their perceptions of policing in the entertainment precinct

ORS administrative data on formal actions taken in response to breaches of liquor licensing

What impact do the proactive policing and enforcement strategies delivered as part of the ACTP response to alcohol-related crime in entertainment precincts have on the patterns of consumption and problematic drinking behaviour among patrons of licensed premises?

Number of intoxicated persons admitted to ACT sobering-up shelter

Number and proportion of persons lodged into protective custody who:

  • are intoxicated
  • have committed some act of disorderly conduct

ACT Health/Centacare

ACTP custodial data

What impact do the proactive policing and enforcement strategies delivered as part of the ACTP response to alcohol-related crime in entertainment precincts have on the nature and the level of alcohol-related harm in areas with a high concentration of licensed premises?

Number and rate of recorded offences involving alcohol in entertainment precincts, including:

  • assault in public places
  • assault in private residences
  • disorderly conduct
  • property damage

Number of incidents attended by police in locations in and around licensed premises (police initiated, CCTV and calls for police attendance)

Number of persons admitted to hospital for injuries relating to alcohol-related assault or incident

ACTP PROMIS data

ACT Health (emergency data and/or ambulance data)

Appendix 4: Place of last drink form

Alcohol-related incident form

This form is to be completed for EVERY incident attended by police where alcohol has been consumed by either the person of interest OR victim.

The attending officer should begin by asking the person (POI/victim) if they have recently consumed alcohol and confirm that this took place no more than six hours prior to the incident.

If the person refuses or is unable to answer, then the officer should assess whether there is reasonable evidence to suspect that alcohol has been consumed (for example the incident occurs inside or within immediate vicinity of licensed premises or the person presents with signs of intoxication—see inside cover).

Signs of intoxication
  1. Gross motor control—loss of balance eg staggering or falling over
  2. Fine motor control—loss of coordination eg fumbling with cigarettes, spilling drinks
  3. Smell of liquor
  4. Decreased alertness
  5. Sleepiness
  6. Sweating
  7. Slurred speech
  8. Change in speech volume
  9. Changes in rate of speaking
  10. Discernible deviation in respiration—slow or shallow
  11. Red/bloodshot eyes
Place of last drink form