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Brisbane

Demographic information

  • The DUMA program interviewed 1,238 detainees; they were on average 32 years of age and 81 percent (n=1,001) of them were male.
  • Year 10 or less was the highest education level attained by 39 percent (n=481) of detainees, followed by 26 percent (n=328) who reported having completed TAFE (see Table 27).
  • Seventy-eight percent (n=962) of detainees reported residing in stable accommodation (private or social housing), owned or rented by themselves (42%, n=521) or by someone else (36%, n=441), in the 30 days prior to their arrest (see Table 27).
  • Twenty-nine percent (n=362) of detainees reported they were unemployed and looking for work, 26 percent (n=316) of detainees reported they were not looking for work, and 21 percent (n=261) of detainees reported being in full-time employment at the time of their arrest (see Table 27).
  • Forty-nine percent (n=590) of detainees reported having been charged on a previous occasion in the past 12 months, and 29 percent (n=349) of detainees reported having been in prison in the past 12 months (see Table 28).
  • Twenty percent (n=239) of detainees reported being released from prison in the past one to 10 years and four percent (n=45) of detainees reported being released from prison more than 10 years ago (see Table 28a).
  • Twenty-one percent (n=931) of all charges recorded against detainees were for property offences.
  • Detainees may have been charged with multiple offences; each detainee was categorised according to the most serious offence (MSO) they were charged with (see Technical Appendix). Twenty-two percent (n=277) of detainees were categorised in the MSO of property (see Table 29).

Drug, alcohol and drug-crime attribution findings

  • Of the 701 detainees who provided a urine sample, 73 percent (n=514) tested positive to at least one drug type (see Table 30), which is three percentage points higher than the test positive rate in 2011–12 (70%) and continues the rise in test positive rates noted in the 2011–12 monitoring report.
  • Test positive rates were highest for cannabis (43%; n=303), followed by amphetamines (38%; n=265), benzodiazepines (27%; n=192) and opiates (23%; n=162) (see Table 30). Test positive rates were higher in 2013–14 than in 2011–12 for amphetamines (38% cf 26%); test positive rates were lower in 2013–14 than in 2011–12 for cannabis (43% cf 44%) and opiates (23% cf 26%).
  • The increase in the test positive rate for amphetamines from 2011–12 to 2013–14 was mainly due to an eight percentage point increase in detainees testing positive to methamphetamine (26% cf 34%). The test positive rate for amphetamines has continued to increase from the rate of 18 percent reported in the 2009–10 monitoring report.
  • Thirty-four percent (n=419) of detainees reported consuming alcohol in the 48 hours prior to their arrest and 68 percent (n=841) of detainees reported consuming alcohol in the 30 days prior to their arrest (see Table 31). This is a decrease from the 2011–12 collection period (41% and 74% respectively).
  • It was most common for detainees to report consuming spirits only on the last occasion of drinking (33%; n=137), followed by two or more types of alcohol (30%; n=127), beer only (21%; n=87), and wine only (16%; n=66) (see Table 31). Since 2011–12, there has been a decrease in the percentage of detainees who reported consuming beer and spirits only (30% and 41% respectively in 2011–12) and an increase in the percentage of detainees who reported consuming wine only, or two or more types of alcohol, on the last occasion of drinking (10% and 18% respectively in 2011–12).
  • The average total number of standard drinks consumed on the last occasion of drinking was 23, only slightly higher than the average reported in the 2011–12 monitoring report (22 standard drinks). Detainees who reported consuming two or more types of alcohol on the last occasion reported the highest levels of consumption—on average, 34 standard drinks—followed by wine-only drinkers (27 standard drinks), spirit-only drinkers (15 standard drinks), and beer-only drinkers (13 standard drinks). This consumption pattern was also reflected in the average number of drinks consumed per hour on the last occasion of drinking, with the exception of spirit- and beer-only drinkers, who consumed, on average, four standard drinks per hour (see Table 31).
  • The consumption pattern for total drinks consumed on the last occasion of drinking was similar to the pattern reported in 2011–12; the average number of standard drinks consumed per hour on the last occasion of drinking was not reported in 2011–12.
  • Examining drug use by crime type, the MSO categories with the highest percentage of detainees who tested positive to at least one type of drug were breach and DUI (82%; n=164 breach; n=9 DUI), followed by the MSO of drug (81%; n=73), property (79%; n=124), disorder (75%; n=27), violent (59%; n=109), and traffic MSOs (38%; n=8) (see Table 32).
  • Detainees whose MSO was DUI were more likely to identify alcohol than other drugs (such as cannabis, heroin, methamphetamine and MDMA) as a contributing factor in their current police detention (60% alcohol cf 0% other drugs), as were detainees whose MSO was disorder (55% alcohol cf 13% other drugs), or violent (33% alcohol cf 25% other drugs). Detainees whose MSO was drug were more likely to identify drugs other than alcohol as a contributing factor in their current police detention (57% other drugs cf 8% alcohol), as were detainees whose MSO was breach (40% other drugs cf 22% alcohol), property (39% other drugs cf 14% alcohol), or traffic (19% other drugs cf 7% alcohol) (see Table 32). This attribution pattern is similar to that reported in the 2011–12 monitoring report with the exception of detainees whose MSO was traffic, who were more likely to report alcohol than other drugs as a contributing factor in 2011–12.

Sample and demographics

Table 26 Brisbane DUMA sample, by age and gender, 2013–14a
Male Female Total
n % n % n %
Age (yrs)
18–20 103 10 22 9 125 10
21–25 183 18 54 23 237 19
26–30 198 20 56 24 254 21
31–35 164 16 42 18 206 17
36+ 353 35 63 27 416 34
Total 1,001 237 1,238
Min/max age 18/77 18/60 18/77
Mean age (median) 33 (31) 31 (29) 32 (31)

a: Excludes cases where gender was unknown

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Education, housing and employment

Table 27 Brisbane DUMA sample, by education, housing, employment and gender, 2013–14a
n % n % n %
Education
Year 10 or less 398 40 83 35 481 39
Year 11 or 12 148 15 35 15 183 15
TAFE/university not completed 121 12 43 18 164 13
Completed TAFE 266 27 62 26 328 26
Completed university 68 7 14 6 82 7
Total 1,001 237 1,238
Housing
Owned or rented by self 415 42 106 45 521 42
Someone else’s place 356 36 85 36 441 36
Shelter or emergency 18 2 1 0 19 2
Incarceration facility/halfway house 19 2 2 1 21 2
Treatment facility 10 1 2 1 12 1
No fixed residence 121 12 35 15 156 13
Other 61 6 6 3 67 5
Total 1,000 237 1,237
Employment
Full-time 237 24 24 10 261 21
Part-time 94 9 21 9 115 9
Have job but not currently workingb 103 10 25 11 128 10
Looking for work 298 30 64 27 362 29
Not looking for work 237 24 79 33 316 26
Full-time homemakers 11 1 20 8 31 3
Studying 12 1 4 2 16 1
Retired 9 1 0 0 9 1
Total 1,001 237 1,238

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Due to illness, leave, strike, disability or seasonal work

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Criminal justice contact

Table 28 Brisbane DUMA sample, by criminal history and gender, 2013–14a
Male Female Total
n % n % n %
Prior charge history (past 12 months)
Yes 483 49 107 47 590 49
No 498 51 120 53 618 51
Prior prison history (past 12 months)b
Yes 280 28 69 30 349 29
No 706 72 164 70 870 71
Currently on parolec
Yes 242 32 62 36 304 32
No 524 68 112 64 636 68
Currently on probationc
Yes 61 8 21 12 82 9
No 706 92 153 88 859 91
Currently on community service orderc
Yes 8 1 1 1 9 1
No 759 99 173 99 932 99

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Calculated as anyone who reported being released from prison up to 365 days ago

c: From Q3 2013 to Q1 2014 only those who had served time in prison were asked this question. From Q2 2014 onwards all detainees were asked this question. Detainees who skipped the question in Q3 2013 to Q1 2014 have been treated as missing data as it is unknown how they would have answered this question

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Table 28a Brisbane DUMA sample, by prison history and gender, 2013–14
Male Female Total
Released from prison n % n % n %
Never been to prison 466 47 120 52 586 48
Up to one year ago 280 28 69 30 349 29
More than one year, up to two years ago 81 8 17 7 98 8
More than two years, up to four years ago 61 6 10 4 71 6
More than four years, up to six years ago 24 2 5 2 29 2
More than six years, up to eight years ago 18 2 3 1 21 2
More than eight years, up to ten years ago 18 2 2 1 20 2
More than ten years ago 38 4 7 3 45 4
Total 986 233 1,219

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Offending

Table 29 Brisbane DUMA sample, by offence and gender, 2013–14a
Male Female Total
Charges Detainees’ MSOb Charges Detainees’ MSOb Charges Detainees’ MSOb
Charges recorded n % n % n % n % n % n %
Violent 647 18 302 30 85 10 43 18 732 17 345 28
Property 701 20 204 20 230 27 73 31 931 21 277 22
Drug 652 18 104 10 156 18 31 13 808 18 135 11
DUIc 30 1 15 1 9 1 5 2 39 1 20 2
Traffic 197 6 35 3 52 6 8 3 249 6 43 3
Disorder 279 8 46 5 36 4 7 3 315 7 53 4
Breach 610 17 292 29 162 19 70 30 772 17 362 29
Other 456 13 3 0 124 15 0 0 580 13 3 0
Total 3,572 1,001 854 237 4,426 1,238

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Detainees may have been charged with multiple offences; each detainee was categorised according to the most serious offence (MSO) that they were charged with (see Technical Appendix)

c: Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Drug use

Table 30 Brisbane DUMA sample, by urinalysis test results and gender, 2013–14a
Male Female Total
n % n % n %
Provided urineb
Yes 572 94 129 94 701 94
No 38 6 8 6 46 6
Test results
Cannabis 254 44 49 38 303 43
Cocaine 13 2 2 2 15 2
Amphetaminesc 195 34 70 54 265 38
Methamphetamine 174 30 66 51 240 34
MDMA 1 0 0 0 1 0
Other amphetamines 20 3 4 3 24 3
Opiatesd 114 20 48 37 162 23
Heroin 35 6 19 15 54 8
Methadone 23 4 19 15 42 6
Buprenorphine 48 8 22 17 70 10
Other opiates 37 6 11 9 48 7
Benzodiazepines 144 25 48 37 192 27
Any drug 408 71 106 82 514 73
Any drug other than cannabis 308 54 97 75 405 58
Multiple drugs 216 38 71 55 287 41

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Percentages have been calculated for the quarters in which urine samples were requested, which in 2013 was quarters 3 and 4 and in 2014 was quarters 1 and 3 (see Technical Appendix for further detail)

c: Includes methamphetamine, MDMA and other amphetamines

d: Includes heroin, methadone, buprenorphine and other opiates

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Figure 9 Test positive trends, adult males by drug type, Brisbane, 2002–2014 (%)

Note: Data were not collected at this site during quarters 2 and 4 of 2012, quarters 1 and 2 of 2013, or quarters 2 and 4 of 2014

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Figure 10 Test positive trends, adult females by drug type, Brisbane, 2002–2014 (%)

Note: Data were not collected at this site during quarters 2 and 4 of 2012, quarters 1 and 2 of 2013, or quarters 2 and 4 of 2014

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Self-reported alcohol use

Table 31 Brisbane DUMA sample, by self-reported alcohol use and gender, 2013–14a
Male Female Total
n % n % n %
Alcohol use
Past 48 hoursb 352 35 67 28 419 34
Past 30 days 694 69 147 62 841 68
Alcohol type consumed on last drinking occasion
Beer only 77 22 10 16 87 21
Wine only 52 15 14 22 66 16
Spirits only 113 32 24 38 137 33
Mixed drinksc 111 31 16 25 127 30
Male Female Total
n mean (median) n mean (median) n mean (median)
Quantities consumed on last drinking occasion (total standard drinks)
Beer only 77 14 (8) 9 5 (4) 86 13 (7)
Wine only 52 28 (22) 14 22 (10) 66 27 (16)
Spirits only 111 15 (12) 24 16 (12) 135 15 (12)
Mixed drinksc 111 35 (24) 16 30 (17) 127 34 (22)
Quantities consumed on last drinking occasion (standard drinks per hour)
Beer only 74 5 (3) 9 3 (2) 83 4 (3)
Wine only 50 6 (4) 13 5 (3) 63 6 (4)
Spirits only 108 4 (3) 22 4 (2) 130 4 (3)
Mixed drinksc 109 6 (4) 14 3 (2) 123 5 (3)

a: Sample size may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Only if consumed alcohol in the past 30 days

c: ‘Mixed drinks’ refers to consuming more than one type of alcohol

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]

Linking drugs and crime

Table 32 Brisbane DUMA sample, by urinalysis test results and drug-crime attributions by most serious offence category, 2013–14a
Violent Property Drug Opiatesd Traffic Disorder Breach Other Total
n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
Urinalysis results
Cannabis 65 35 67 43 47 52 4 36 5 24 21 58 94 47 0 0 303 43
Cocaine 1 1 4 3 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 0 0 15 2
Amphetaminesc 52 28 72 46 40 44 2 18 3 14 10 28 86 43 0 0 265 38
Opiatesd 28 15 50 32 22 24 3 27 2 10 7 19 50 25 0 0 162 23
Benzodiazepines 43 23 42 27 24 27 4 36 0 0 8 22 71 35 0 0 192 27
(Any drug) 109 59 124 79 73 81 9 82 8 38 27 75 164 82 0 0 514 73
(Any drug other than cannabis) 83 45 102 65 60 67 7 64 5 24 19 53 129 64 0 0 405 58
(Multiple drugs) 59 32 75 48 43 48 4 36 2 10 14 39 90 45 0 0 287 41
(Total urine samples) 184 156 90 11 21 36 201 2 701
Self-reported drug-crime attribution
Alcohol 113 33 40 14 11 8 12 60 3 7 29 55 79 22 0 0 287 23
Other drugs 85 25 107 39 77 57 0 0 8 19 7 13 144 40 1 33 429 35
Any attribution 181 52 129 47 83 61 12 60 10 23 33 62 208 57 1 33 657 53
(Total detainees interviewed) 345 277 135 20 43 53 362 3 1,238

a: Sample sizes may vary, as cases may have been excluded due to missing data

b: Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs

c: Includes methamphetamine, MDMA and other amphetamines

d: Includes heroin, methadone, buprenorphine and other opiates

Note: Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding

Source: AIC DUMA collection 2013–14 [computer file]