Australian Institute of Criminology

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Agency overview

Introduction

The Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) has served successive Australian governments and the criminal justice system for 43 years as the nation’s research and knowledge centre on crime and justice—promulgating and disseminating research studies, compiling trend data and providing policy advice.

The Institute was established in 1973, after the passage of the Criminology Research Act 1971, to centrally collect and analyse national criminological data and provide evidence-based research to government and policing agencies. In late 2010 the Commonwealth Government passed the Financial Framework Legislation Amendment Act 2010, amending the Criminology Research Act.

In 2014–15, the Institute continued to maintain strong links and partnerships with Commonwealth, state and territory government agencies, police jurisdictions, universities, and other research organisations through the provision of research, analysis and advice, frequently undertaking research projects in partnership or under contract to meet partner agencies’ needs.

During 2014–15, the AIC worked closely with the Australian Crime Commission and various stakeholders on plans for the proposed merger of the two organisations. A merger would enable joint research and intelligence work on key issues, the development of new methods and the ability to provide more unclassified information to the community.

Minister, portfolio and Director

The AIC is part of the Attorney-General’s portfolio. The Minister for Justice, the Hon Michael Keenan MP, has ministerial responsibility for the AIC.

Dr Adam Tomison was appointed Director of the AIC in July 2009; since 1 July 2011, he has also been its Chief Executive.

Objectives

The AIC’s outcome, as stated in the 2015–16 Portfolio Budget Statement, is to inform crime and justice policy and practice in Australia by undertaking, funding and disseminating policy-relevant research of national significance; and through the generation of a crime and justice evidence base and national knowledge centre.

This outcome is achieved by:

  • undertaking impartial, policy-relevant research to inform policy and practice in the crime and criminal justice sectors;
  • working cooperatively with the Attorney-General’s Department, portfolio and other federal agencies, state and territory governments, and policing agencies as the Australian Government’s national research centre on crime and justice;
  • administering an effective and efficient annual Criminology Research Grants (CRG) program that results in policy-relevant research of value to the nation;
  • actively disseminating research findings to policymakers, practitioners and the general public, across Australia and internationally, in a timely manner; and
  • providing effective corporate services that not only deliver on the governance and legislative obligations of the organisation but also support and enhance the delivery of its other objectives.

Functions

To perform its role and achieve its objectives, the AIC undertakes its functions as set out in the Criminology Research Act 1971, which are:

  1. to promote justice and reduce crime by:
    1. conducting criminological research; and
    2. communicating the results of that research to the Commonwealth, the States, the Australian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory and the community;
  2. to assist the Director in performing the Director’s functions;
  3. to administer programs for awarding grants, and engaging specialists, for:
    1. criminological research that is relevant to the public policy of the States, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory; and
    2. activities related to that research (including the publication of that research, for example).

The functions of the Director include:

  • conducting criminological research, including the collection of information and statistics on crime and justice matters;
  • communicating the results of that research, including through the publication of research material and seminars and courses of training or instruction;
  • providing information and advice on the administration of criminal justice to the Commonwealth Government and state and territory governments; and
  • collaborating both within and outside Australia with governments, institutions and authorities, and with bodies and persons, on research and training in connection with the administration of criminal justice.

2014–15 Highlights

Research

New research

In 2014–15, the AIC commenced new work on:

  • investigating crystal methamphetamine markets, production and offender use as part of the Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA) program;
  • forced marriage and servile marriage;
  • analysis of attrition in human trafficking and slavery cases;
  • the use of crime prevention frameworks within the context of human trafficking and slavery;
  • the conceptualisation of migration brokerage typologies;
  • identifying the vulnerabilities of newsagencies to armed robbery;
  • use of CCTV at Sydney train stations;
  • an evaluation of child protection initiatives in NSW;
  • an evaluation of an adolescent family violence program;
  • community development and crime prevention;
  • alcohol-related crime and disorder in entertainment districts;
  • police use of information systems;
  • analysing crime victimisation experiences using the AIC’s Database of Victims Experience (DoVE) derived from the NSW Department of Justice Victims of Crime compensation database;
  • the management of intoxicated or aggressive airline passengers; and
  • an evaluation of the Australian Ballistic Information Network.

Continuing research

The AIC continued its research into:

  • identity crime;
  • consumer fraud;
  • fraud against the Commonwealth;
  • cybercrime;
  • national indicators of alcohol-related crime;
  • homicide;
  • deaths in custody;
  • family violence; and
  • unexplained wealth regulations.

Major publications

In 2014–15, the AIC released a number of major publications, including:

  • the 2011–13 deaths in custody monitoring report;
  • the 2010–12 national homicide monitoring report;
  • Counting the cost of crime in Australia: A 2011 estimate;
  • numbers 480–502 in the series Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, including three reports that utilised the Tasmania Police family violence database to examine offender profiles; and
  • two special reports contextualising the legislative systems around sexual and child abuse for the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.

Major conferences

In 2015 the AIC facilitated two international conferences:

  • the 15th International Symposium of the World Society of Victimology, 5–9 July 2015, Perth, Western Australia; and
  • the 14th Australasian Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect, 29 March–1 April 2015, Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand.
  • The AIC also presented a workshop at the 13th UN Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice in April 2015 in Doha, Qatar. This workshop explored the public contribution to crime prevention and raising awareness of criminal justice.

Seminar Series

In 2014–15, eminent criminologists presented a number of public seminars as part of the AIC’s Occasional Seminar series, including:

  • EMMIE, a tool for assessing evaluations for use in policy and practice, presented by Professor Nick Tilley, Professor in the Department of Security and Crime Science, University College London;
  • Arresting Indigenous imprisonment—past failures and future solutions, presented by Dr Don Weatherburn, Director of the NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research; and
  • Sport and corruption in Australia: a case of home-grown talent? presented by Dr Samantha Bricknell, Manager, Violence and Exploitation research team at the AIC.

Information Services

2014–15 saw the introduction of Koha, a new library management system, to the JV Barry Library. The Koha catalogue interface is hosted off site, easy to use and more cost-effective, and library staff are able to customise the look of the catalogue to a greater extent than previously.

The library is also digitising its considerable folio collection, which consists predominantly of reports and grey literature, to improve desktop access and to reduce its physical footprint.

Box 1: Parliamentary submissions 2014–15
Federal Australia. Parliament. Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee. Inquiry into the Crimes Legislation Amendment (Psychoactive Substances and Other Measures) Bill 2014. August 2014 (Submission)

Australia. Parliament. Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs References Committee. Inquiry into the ability of Australian law enforcement authorities to eliminate gun-related violence in the community. August 2014 (Submission); October 2014 (Hearing)

Australia. Parliament. Joint Committee on Law Enforcement. Inquiry into crystal methamphetamine (ICE). June 2015. Submission by the Attorney-General’s department, Australian Crime Commission, Australian Federal Police, Australian Institute of Criminology, Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre, Immigration and Border Protection Portfolio

State/Territory Vic. Parliament. Law Reform Drugs and Crime Prevention Committee. Inquiry into Methamphetamine use. August 2014 (Committee hearing)

Qld. Queensland Parliament Legal Affairs and Community Safety Committee. Inquiry into Weapons (Digital 3D and Printed Firearms) Amendment Bill 2014. July 2014 (Submission)

Qld. Queensland Parliament Legal Affairs and Community Safety Committee. Inquiry on strategies to prevent and reduce criminal activity in Queensland. August 2014 (Submission)

NSW. New South Wales Sentencing Council. AIC response to possible sentencing measures to achieve deterrence and behaviour change in relation to alcohol and drug fuelled violence. April 2015 (Submission)

Figure 1: AIC Organisational Chart

2015 Organisation chart

Highlight: The cost of crime

Counting the cost of crime in Australia: A 2011 estimate calculates the cost of crime in Australia for the calendar year 2011—the most recent year for which baseline official statistics and survey data were available. The estimated total cost of crime was $47.6b or 3.4 percent of national gross domestic product (GDP). This report was released in November 2014. The methodology underpinning this calculation was developed by the AIC using previous reports combined with updated methodologies such as that of the UK’s Home Office. Costs include those of various specific criminal offences, the cost of responding to crime through the criminal justice system, the cost of lost outputs of victims and offenders and the cost of crime-prevention measures.

In 1992, the AIC estimated that the total costs of crime for 1991 were $27b or 7.2 percent of national GDP. In 2003, the AIC updated and improved an extended methodology which it used to cost crime for the year 2001; it was estimated that crime cost the Australian economy nearly $32b or five percent of national GDP in that year. For comparative purposes, it is preferable to use the findings for 2001 as the baseline for comparison with the 2011 figures.

In 2008, the AIC estimated the cost of crime for the calendar year 2005 at $35.8b or 4.1 percent of national GDP. The 2014 report had better baseline data; it refined and improved the multipliers used and added cost estimates for previously uncosted elements such as the increase in criminal justice expenditure. The 2011 data also takes into account funds recovered through various Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 processes. In 2010–11, $63,041,487 was recovered nationally.

Findings included that:

  • the estimated total cost of assault was $2,600 per incident and $3.03b overall. The estimated medical costs of assaults requiring hospitalisation was $11,600, with a total medical cost of $379m overall;
  • police recorded 17,592 sexual assaults in 2011, 85 percent of which were against females. The average medical cost for those injured was $950 per incident. The estimated total cost of sexual assault was $775m;
  • the total cost of robbery was $372.4m, of which the largest component was lost output at $219.5m. On average this represents approximately $5,118 per victim; and
  • fraud costs include fraud against the Commonwealth ($96.5m), personal fraud ($1.4b), serious fraud ($657m), and police-recorded fraud ($2.1b).

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Text version of image: COUNTING THE COSTS OF CRIME

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Text version of image: Justice and victim support

Research overview

Research

The AIC conducts timely and policy-relevant research on crime and justice issues for the Australian Government and other key stakeholders. The Deputy Director Research manages the research team and research functions of the AIC.

Research relevant to policy and practice

Research undertaken by the AIC informs policy and practice in the crime and criminal justice sectors through:

  • monitoring trends in crime and the criminal justice system;
  • building knowledge of offending and victimisation;
  • identifying emerging or changing criminal activity; and
  • building an evidence base for an effective criminal justice system and crime prevention.

The AIC designs and conducts research projects and funds research through the Criminology Research Grants (CRG) program, which investigates or highlights particular criminal justice issues of national or Commonwealth Government interest. Although research topics and methodologies vary, the AIC’s emphasis is always on providing a policy-relevant evidence base.

While the AIC’s research is primarily funded by the Commonwealth Government, individual projects may be funded by the Commonwealth Government (or agencies), state and territory governments (or agencies), or a range of academic and non-government organisations.

The AIC receives significant in-kind support from state and territory governments for long-term monitoring programs and research projects. This is often in the form of access to, or provision of, data. The Australian state and territory governments, together with the Commonwealth Government (which makes a contribution through the AIC’s core appropriation) also fund the CRG program each year.

Research program

The AIC conducts timely and policy-relevant research on crime and justice issues for the Commonwealth Government and other key stakeholders. The strategic priorities of its research are to:

  • provide information on, and analysis of, the criminal justice system and the causes, control and prevention of crime;
  • develop innovative products and services, including consultancy, in the field of criminological research and information to better meet the needs of clients and stakeholders; and
  • anticipate the needs of major stakeholders by conducting research into emerging areas of crime, including maintaining the ability to respond quickly to the needs of government.

National monitoring programs

National monitoring programs are the core research activity of the AIC. They involve the collection and analysis of specialised crime and criminal justice data not available elsewhere. Most monitoring programs release a biennial report analysing trends and characteristics revealed by the data. These reports are widely used to inform whole-of-government reporting on the crime and justice sector, and to support policy initiatives across all levels of government.

National monitoring and reporting is currently undertaken in the areas of:

  • human trafficking and slavery;
  • deaths in custody;
  • fraud against the Commonwealth;
  • drug use and the sociodemographics of police detainees; and
  • homicide.

The following teams meet the strategic research priorities.

Criminal Justice Monitoring and Analysis

The Criminal Justice Monitoring and Analysis Program’s objectives are to enhance and promote knowledge of some of Australia’s central crime and justice issues, such as illicit drug use and crime, deaths in custody, prisoner rehabilitation, offender management, justice programs and policies for Indigenous Australians and youth justice. Specifically, the program aims to:

  • identify trends in Indigenous and non-Indigenous offending and custody incidents over time;
  • conduct primary research on Indigenous justice;
  • improve understanding about young people and their contact with the criminal justice system; and
  • inform key stakeholders and the public of changes in trends and patterns in the monitored programs, all in a timely manner.
Crime Prevention and Evaluation

The Crime Prevention and Evaluation Program focuses on two major areas: research that aims to contribute to the knowledge base on effective crime prevention policy and practice, and high-quality evaluations of strategies which prevent and reduce crime. AIC researchers work with practitioners and policymakers around Australia to implement and promote knowledge exchange and to improve the evidence base through:

  • program review and evaluation studies;
  • capacity building and improvement, by reviewing implementation processes and developing performance measures;
  • initiatives to establish collaborative research and development with partner organisations,
  • formal workshops and conference presentations; and
  • direct technical assistance, particularly in the crime prevention area.
Transnational, Organised and Cyber Crime

The Transnational, Organised and Cyber Crime Program aims to provide information on and analysis of the causes, extent, threats, prevention and control of complex and sophisticated criminal activity in relation to:

  • economic crime;
  • consumer fraud;
  • identity crime, and
  • cybercrime.
Violence and Exploitation

The Violence and Exploitation Program is focused on two areas: violent crimes including homicide, alcohol-related violence, armed robbery and family violence; and victimisation through human trafficking and slavery. This program aims to:

  • coordinate the national homicide and armed robbery monitoring datasets and research; and
  • manage the Human Trafficking and Slavery Research Program.

Communications and information services

As Australia’s knowledge centre on crime and justice, one of the Institute’s key roles is the effective dissemination of research to ensure new, useful criminological evidence is incorporated into policy. The AIC seeks to promote justice and reduce crime by developing world-standard research and information collection and effectively disseminating policy-relevant research of national significance.

Communications

The Communications team ensures that new research and information is provided to AIC stakeholders, criminal justice practitioners and the general public. It also facilitates the communication, transfer and adoption of findings into policy and further research. This is achieved by producing high-quality publications, such as the peer-reviewed Research and Public Policy series and Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, as well as other research and policy-relevant materials (see Appendix 1 and 2). In addition, the Communications team develops and manages key dissemination platforms such as the AIC website, large-scale conferences and other events, and broadcasts them via digital, mainstream and social media.

Information services

The AIC hosts a substantial collection of criminal justice and related materials. The collection is housed in the AIC’s JV Barry Library and has been made available online through the AIC website and via the CINCH electronic database, to inform and assist in the development of evidence-based policy and programs.

The JV Barry Library also provides information and research support services to AIC researchers, academics, policymakers, practitioners and the general public. Its links to a range of information services and library networks connect AIC staff and stakeholders to a complete repository of specialist criminological resources in the most efficient manner.

Corporate services

Corporate Services provide substantive functions to deliver AIC outcomes, as well as the more traditional corporate support services, as detailed in the following sections.

Financial management

The AIC’s financial services include:

  • internal and external financial reporting, budget development and management, and project management and reporting;
  • risk management and audit, including strategic risk identification and remediation, oversight of the outsourced internal audit activity, support to the Audit Committee and compliance with the Commonwealth Fraud Control Guidelines;
  • procurement, contracts and legal, including implementation of legislative and compliance frameworks such as the Protective Security Policy Framework (PSPF), Legal Services Directions and Privacy Act; and
  • coordinating, developing and streamlining new PGPA Act requirements, including the Accountability Authority Instructions.

Human resource management and administration

Human resource responsibilities at the AIC include:

  • strategic workforce planning and management including recruitment, coordination and facilitation of training and development, and the staff performance development scheme;
  • coordination of the outsourced payroll services provider;
  • implementation of industrial legislative obligations including negotiation of the enterprise agreement;
  • development, implementation and monitoring of human resources policies and procedures including liaison with the Staff Consultative Committee; and
  • monitoring and review of workplace health and safety issues.

Administrative activities include:

  • administration of the CRG, NDLERF and ACVPA grants programs;
  • secretariat services provided to the ACVPA Board, NDLERF Board and the Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology;
  • records and information management, including implementation of digital records management;
  • management of intellectual property, responses to parliamentary questions and ministerial correspondence; and
  • general and essential support, including facilities and security management, and travel administration.

Information and communications technology

The AIC runs a stable and secure information and communications technology (ICT) network in accordance with Commonwealth Government Protective Security Policy Framework (PSPF) and related information security requirements.

Information and communication technology responsibilities at the AIC include:

  • ICT network and infrastructure maintenance;
  • network and hardware solutions development and implementation;
  • software maintenance and management;
  • management of telephony services including VOIP transition;
  • maintenance and development of videoconference solutions and capability;
  • website hosting and support. In addition to the AIC’s website, support and/or hosting are provided on a fee-for-service basis to other organisations including NDLERF and Crime Stoppers Australia;
  • management of the agency transition to Government Gateway services;
  • monitoring of the ICT asset management and replacement program; and
  • testing and ensuring the suitability and reliability of ICT disaster recovery.
Table 1: AIC Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
Target Outcome
100 percent of Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice papers and Research and Public Policy series papers are blind peer reviewed. This ensures the quality of the Institute’s research outputs Achieved
Reports produced for each of the monitoring programs are issued according to schedule (eg annually, biennially) Achieved
23 peer reviewed Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice papers and Research and Public Policy series papers published annually Exceeded
38 other publications including Research in Practice papers, Technical and Background papers, briefs, journal articles, consultancy reports et cetera published annually Exceeded
At least 10 roundtables and other forums held annually Exceeded
>90% satisfaction of stakeholders with research (according to project mid-term and/or completion survey) Achieved

Highlight: Four decades of the Australian Institute of Criminology

In the mid-1960s Sir John Barry, a Justice of the Supreme Court of Victoria and prominent supporter of penal and criminal justice reform, recommended that the Commonwealth Government establish an ‘Australian Institute of Criminal and Penal Science’ to be funded and maintained by the Commonwealth. Barry was also instrumental in establishing the Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology in 1967, becoming its inaugural president. After a period of intense lobbying and negotiation, the Gorton Government eventually heeded the concerns of government bureaucrats, academics and criminal justice policymakers around the paucity of national crime statistics and research and introduced legislation into the Commonwealth Parliament in 1971 to establish the Australian Institute of Criminology.

On 6 April 1971, the Criminology Research Act 1972 (Cth) received Royal Assent and the Institute began life as a statutory authority of the Commonwealth, with a Board of Management composed of three members appointed by the Commonwealth Attorney-General and three members representing the states. An Australian Government grant of $40,000 funded its first year of operations. Members of the board also sat on the Criminology Research Council, which was charged with administering a research fund made up of contributions from all jurisdictions. The aim was for the Institute to conduct criminological research and training, and for the Council to provide funds for academics and others to undertake research of national policy relevance to Australia as a whole.

During the 1970s the discipline of criminology gradually grew in prominence, with the creation of a Board of Studies in Criminology at the University of Melbourne. This provided the academic foundation for criminology in Australia, with a diploma course including four compulsory subjects, which offered early academic training for those seeking both theoretical and empirical research skills in order to teach or to work in government criminal justice positions.

On 1 February 1973, Judge JH Muirhead (then of the Adelaide Local and District Criminal Court) was appointed Acting Director. On 16 October 1973 then Attorney-General, Lionel Murphy QC, addressed the official opening ceremony of the AIC at the National Library theatrette.

Judge Muirhead commenced work at an office in Civic in Canberra in 1973 and oversaw some of the early research conducted by the small staff of three senior criminologists, Harold Weir, David Biles and Mary Daunton-Fear, and its three administrative staff. The Institute’s research focus was eclectic. Some academics lamented its positivist emphasis on the collection of data while others criticised some of its work as not of primary interest to the Commonwealth that provided most of its funding.

The Institute has provided research and policy analysis on an extensive range of criminological topics during its 42-year history including:

  • monitoring of trends in violent crimes such as homicide, firearms offences, sexual violence and human trafficking;
  • investigations of white-collar crime and fraud, and crime involving new technologies;
  • evaluations of the effectiveness of crime control measures such as closed-circuit television, electronic monitoring of offenders, restorative justice, anti money-laundering controls and capital punishment;
  • assessments of boutique criminal justice topics including fisheries crime, farm crime, ATM robberies, cloud computing and carbon trading; and
  • support for victims of both violent crimes and Commonwealth offences, and avenues to enhance the rehabilitation of offenders.

The Institute’s staff not only provided research and advice for governments throughout the country but also supported some major policy initiatives during its 42 years. Some of these landmark initiatives included:

  • providing research funding from the Criminology Research Grant Fund for juvenile offender surveys in South Australia, Queensland and Victoria;
  • spearheading the United Nations Crime Prevention initiative in the 1970s through the United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice agenda. The AIC consistently produced a strong research output in crime prevention and assisted the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in conducting research for its global policy work as part of the PNI network;
  • establishing the JV Barry Library’s Computerised Information from National Criminological Holdings (CINCH) database of criminology information, based on material collected and catalogued by the Library;
  • developing, from the 1980s onward, a strong research program in economic and organised crime examining all forms of economic crime and fraud, particularly fraud against the Commonwealth such as welfare, health and revenue fraud;
  • undertaking some of the first criminological research, funded by the Telstra Foundation in the mid-1990s, into telecommunications and computer crime. This led to the publication of a number of internationally recognised and award-winning books that provided a theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding cybercrime, electronic theft and the latest threats facing those who use mobile and wireless networks and cloud computing services. A three-year consultancy with the Australian High Tech Crime Centre further developed this work, by identifying future threats and developing crime-reduction measures targeted at emerging forms of cybercrime;
  • supporting the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody and developing a national monitoring program on all deaths in corrective and police custody in response to the inquiry’s recommendation;
  • hosting the inaugural National Committee on Violence in 1990 that provided a blueprint for responding to violent crimes of all types throughout Australia;
  • establishing another longitudinal monitoring program on the drug use of detained offenders in the late 1990s—the Drug Use Monitoring in Australia program—which continues to track drug market changes from a street-level perspective across Australia; and
  • producing a range of groundbreaking bushfire arson research and publishing a series of arson prevention handbooks during the millennium drought, in response to a request from the Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre.

The Institute’s directors have drawn on their professional backgrounds to shape the specific research outputs of the Institute. These have included work on correctional management, art and antiquity theft, drug offences, crimes against older persons and child abuse and neglect. The Institute’s directors have guided it through four and a half decades of research and policy advice.

The AIC has moved four times in its history, from its original office in Weston Creek at Cooleman Court to Colbee Court in Phillip; then to the former Lakeside Casino building in Civic and most recently to the former Griffith public library building in Leichhardt Street.

Contracted work has come from every state and territory, all major Commonwealth entities, a variety of private sector organisations such as the Australian Bankers’ Association, PricewaterhouseCoopers and KPMG, and international bodies such as the UNODC, United Nations Asia and Far East Institute (UNAFEI), United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), the United Kingdom Home Office, the US Department of Justice, the Thai government, and academic departments in major universities throughout the world.

The Institute has also been a training ground for policy analysts and criminologists, with former staff securing chairs and senior research posts in universities in Australia and overseas and obtaining senior policy roles in government and industry. The Institute has organised regular major conferences, as well as numerous smaller roundtable discussions and forums for senior policy advisers, students and early career scholars. It has conducted formal training programs in such diverse topics as new correctional programs, white-collar crime, identity fraud and program evaluation. In terms of return on government investment the Institute has been highly successful and, as has often been noted by those astounded at the extent and quality of its output, it has punched well above its weight.

Dr Russell G Smith
Principal Criminologist 1996–2015
Australian Institute of Criminology

Launch of OHS report

(left to right) John Braithwaite, David Biles and Gareth Evans at the launch of John Braithwaite and Peter Grabosky’s Occupational Health and Safety Enforcement in Australia: A Report to the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission, 17 July 1985

AIC building in 1985

The Institute’s home in 1985 at 10–18 Colbee Court, Phillip

Judge Muirhead

Judge Muirhead and AIC staff in 1973