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Bibliography

  • Lisa Collins
  1. Atkinson, L. (1996) Detaining Aboriginal Juveniles as a Last Resort: Variations from the Theme, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 64 (December 1996), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    Despite the recommendations contained in the report of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody, over-representation of Indigenous juveniles in custody has persisted. At the time of publication information about the over-representation of Indigenous youth in the Australian juvenile justice system was limited. Information collected at the Australian Institute of Criminology since 1993 provides data specifically in this area. This report makes preliminary observations about trends in Indigenous juvenile detention possible. In this paper, the Institute of presents information on the number of Indigenous juveniles in detention. The information gathered shows that in September 1993, an Indigenous juvenile was 17 times more likely to be held in custody in Australia than a non-Indigenous juvenile, and by June 1996 the likelihood of detention was 21 times greater.

  2. Atkinson, L., Dagger, D., Dalton, V., Halstead, B., McDonald, D. & Mukherjee, S., (1996) 'Trends in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Deaths in Custody and Incarceration', in Implementation of the Commonwealth Government Responses to the Recommendations of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody: Annual Report 1994-95, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, Canberra.

    The chapter provides an annual report on deaths in custody in Australia for the year 1994-95. It presents information on two specific areas - deaths in custody trends and the extent of custodial incarceration of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Similar to information covered in other annual reports the authors examine the 1994-95 data on deaths in custody, the levels of over-representation of Aboriginal people in custody and analyse trends that emerged. Over the period covered by the report 76 deaths were reported to have occurred throughout Australia. Thirteen of the recorded deaths were Aboriginal people, the majority of whom died in prison custody. The authors show that both the number who died in prison custody (10) and police custody (3) had fallen slightly when compared with the previous year.

  3. Biles, D. & Dalton, V., (1999) Deaths in Private Prisons 1990-99: A Comparative Study, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 120 (June 1999), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    At the time of publication Australia had a higher proportion of its prisoners in private correctional facilities than any other country in the world. In the decade after the first private prisons opened in Australia they housed approximately 3000 of Australia's 20,000 prisoners. This publication by Biles and McDonald examines the Australian data and attempts to address issues such as whether or not private prisons are inherently more dangerous for inmates at risk. The authors make several important findings including that public and private prisons had similar death rates for all causes of death and specifically for suicide.
  4. Biles, D., Harding, R. & Walker, J., (1999) The Deaths of Offenders Serving Community Corrections Orders, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 107 (March 1999), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    Since the time of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (RCIADIC) it has been known that people in prison or police custody are much more likely to die than are people of the same age and gender in the broader community. It is not generally known however, that offenders serving community corrections orders have an even higher probability of death than offenders in prison. This study used data from Victoria to show that offenders on parole are particularly at risk with a significant proportion of deaths involving drugs, alcohol or deaths reported as suicides. The study's findings, and its consequences for correctional management, are discussed in this paper.

  5. Biles, D. & McDonald, D., (eds). (1992) Deaths in Custody: Australia 1980-1989, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    This book, edited by Biles and McDonald, is complied from a series of research papers that were prepared by the Criminology Unit of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody over the period 1991 to 1998. There are a total of 22 research papers with most of the papers presenting reports of separate research projects. The research papers in this volume cover a wide range of topics. Areas include Aboriginal deaths in custody and related issues such as public drunkenness, drug testing in prisons and self-inflicted harm in custody. Findings and data from National Police Custody Surveys are also presented.

  6. Carcach, C., Grant, A. & Conroy, R., (1999) Australian Corrections: The Imprisonment of Indigenous People, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 137 (November 1999), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    The operation of the criminal justice system, including police, the courts and incarceration, is a public policy matter that impacts on some sectors of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. A part of a series of reports on Australian imprisonment, this paper examines trends and characteristics of Indigenous prisoners during the 10 years from 1988 to 1998. More specifically, this paper: examines trends in Indigenous imprisonment in recent years; analyses the major features of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prison populations and their changes over the 10-year period; and compares the characteristics of Indigenous and non-Indigenous prison populations in terms of demographic composition, legal status, most serious offence leading to imprisonment, sentences imposed by courts and time spent in prison.

  7. Carcach, C. & McDonald, D., (1997) National Police Custody Survey 1995, Research and Public Policy Series No. 9 (June 1997), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    The National Police Custody Survey is part of an ongoing program of research into patterns and trends in police custody. This publication introduces the third (1995) survey, providing information on its background; scope and coverage; objectives; methodology; sample size; variables included in the survey; and data problems. There were 18,782 distinct persons taken into police custody during the survey period - an average of 606 persons a day. Using statistical tables, graphs and text, this report presents information on the following issues: day of week and time of day incidents of police custody occurred; reason for custody; offences and offences by age of involved persons; public drunkenness, Aboriginality and gender; reasons for release; length of time in custody; and length of detention and drunkenness.

  8. Dalton, V., (1996) Australian Deaths in Custody & Custody-Related Police Operations, 1995-96, Interim Report (September 1996), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    This paper presents information on deaths that occurred in police, prison and juvenile custody throughout Australia during the 12-month period between July 1995 to June 1996. The interim report shows that a total of 75 people were reported to have died during the time under review. Twenty-seven of these deaths occurred in police custody or custody-related police operations and 46 occurred in prison custody. Two juveniles died in the custody of juvenile justice agencies. In the year under review prison deaths were shown to have fallen for the second consecutive year with the number of non-Aboriginal people dying in Australian prisons decreasing markedly. In contrast, deaths of Aboriginal people in prison continued to increase, reaching the highest figure recorded for the 16-year period from 1980. The author also presents the overall trends in deaths in custody since the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody.

  9. Dalton, V., (1997) Australian Deaths in Custody & Custody-related Police Operations 1996, Research and Public Policy Series No. 10 (June 1997), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    The information presented in this report covers deaths that occurred during 1996 while people were in the custody of Australia's police, prisons and juvenile justice authorities and during custody-related police operations. Information in this report is presented under the following headings: total numbers of deaths; age and cause and manner of death; offences and legal status; trends; and over-representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Details for the following topics are also provided: incidence and circumstances of deaths in custody; cause and manner of death; offences; legal status and bail; and death rates. Dalton identifies trends in custodial deaths over a sixteen year period including: trends in patterns of prison custody; trends in patterns of police custody and custody related deaths; and deaths since the Royal Commission. Excerpts from all of the 1994 and 1995 cases for which the Australian Institute of Criminology received Coroner's Findings are presented.

  10. Dalton, V., (1997) Annotated Bibliography on Deaths in Custody, publication on disc and Australian Institute of Criminology web site http://www.aic.gov.au/, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    This bibliography compiled by Vicki Dalton covers selected literature on deaths in custody for the period 1970 to 1996. The bibliography does not aim to be comprehensive, instead it represents a selection of material collected by the National Deaths in Custody Monitoring and Research Program at the Australian Institute of Criminology. It covers government and non-government reports, books, edited book chapters and journal articles. The focus is primarily on Australian literature and includes such topics as juvenile deaths in custody, Aboriginal deaths in custody and publications that examine Australia's implementation of the recommendations of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody.

  11. Dalton, V., (1997) Australian Deaths in Custody & Custody-Related Police Operations, 1996-97, (November 1997), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    This paper presents information on deaths that occurred in police, prison and juvenile custody throughout Australia during the 12-month period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997. Presented is a summary of the findings, examination of the cause and manner of the deaths that occurred and any trends that have emerged since 1980. A number of central findings are highlighted in the report. A total of 97 people were reported to have died during the year under review, the highest figure recorded since 1980. The majority of deaths occurred in prison custody.

  12. Dalton, V., (1997) Australian Deaths in Custody Deaths Resulting From Police Pursuits 1 January 1990 to 30 June 1997, Australian Institute of Criminology web site http://www.aic.gov.au/, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    Included in the definition of a 'death in custody', as defined by the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody are deaths 'wherever occurring of a person who dies or is fatally injured in the process of police or prison officers attempting to detain that person'. This paper defines what is meant by the term 'deaths resulting from police pursuits' in the Australian context. It examines the occurrences of such events between January 1990 and June 1997. Dalton reports that during that time 43 such deaths occurred. The national death rate for such police pursuits is compared with national rates for Aboriginal people under such circumstances. At the time of publication the national death rate for Aboriginal people was 33 times that of non-Aboriginal people, with Western Australia recording a considerably higher overall rate and a significantly higher rate for Aboriginal deaths.

  13. Dalton, V., (1998) Australian Deaths in Custody and Custody-Related Police Operations 1997, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 80 (March 1998), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    This Trends and Issues paper provides data on the 103 deaths in police and prison custody, which occurred in 1997, representing at the time of publication the highest number of deaths on record. It also identifies the trends in the number of deaths in custody-related police operations, and more specifically, the number of people dying as a result of injuries received in the course of, or immediately following, police pursuits. Seventy-three per cent of the 103 deaths during 1997 occurred in prison custody.

  14. Dalton, V., (1998) Prison Deaths 1980-97: National Overview and State Trends, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 81 (March 1998), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    In this publication the author presents an overview of prison deaths and discusses trends that emerged over the period 1 January 1980 to 31 December 1997. During the 18-year period, 1 January 1980 to 31 December 1997, 719 people died in Australia's prisons. The largest increase in the number of deaths per year was between 1996 and 1997, when prison deaths increased by 44 per cent. Data presented in this Trends and Issues paper highlight some of the notable jurisdictional differences, including comparisons between death rates for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. Worth noting is that while only 15% of Australia's prison population is on remand, the group comprises a disproportionate number of prison deaths.

  15. Dalton, V., (1998) Police Shootings 1990 to 1997, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 89 (June 1998), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    This Trends and Issues paper examines the 41 cases between 1990-97 in which police shot people they were attempting to detain. The circumstances surrounding these incidents are examined, and a table detailing a breakdown by jurisdiction is included. While police training to minimise risk of the use of force is thought to have significantly reduced fatal shootings, analysis of the data also shows that police have to deal with a very difficult population. Case studies highlight the prevalence of alcohol or drugs at the time of the incident and one-third of victims were also reported to have had some form of psychiatric illness. This paper highlights the need for Australia's Police Services to be provided with the necessary defence and negotiation skills, as well as training in the effective use of appropriate weapons, in dealing with potentially fatal situations.

  16. Dalton, V., (1998) Deaths in Police Custody - Self-inflicted Firearms Deaths, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 94 (August 1998), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    During the period 1 January 1990 to 30 June 1997 there were 33 self-inflicted firearms deaths in police custody and operations, representing 45 per cent of the total firearms-related deaths in custody that occurred during that period. Preliminary analysis reveals that the firearms were readily available, and in 60 per cent of cases the firearm was not a weapon that could be prohibited or restricted under firearms regulations. A table providing details of the circumstances of each of these deaths is included with this report. This report closely examines the characteristics and precipitating factors leading up to these incidents, highlighting the very significant role that depression, domestic altercations and alcohol contribute to the situation.

  17. Dalton, V., (1999) Prison Homicide in Australia: 1980 to 1998, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 103 (February 1999), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    The National Deaths in Custody Research and Monitoring Program at the Australian Institute of Criminology monitors all prison deaths. This paper documents 56 homicides that occurred in Australian prisons since 1980. While the 56 homicides comprise only 7 per cent of all prison inmate deaths, the area is worthy of study as little specific analysis of the deaths in custody area has focused on prison homicide. This is despite the fact that prisoners are at a much greater risk of being a victim of homicide than are members of the general population. There has been an increase in both the number and the rate of prison homicides over the last 19 years. The paper confirms the violent nature of prisons in that the homicide rate per 1000 prisoners is up to 7 times higher than the homicide rate in the comparable non-prison community.

  18. Dalton, V., (1999) Australian Deaths in Custody and Custody-Related Police Operations 1998, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 105 (March 1999), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    In 1998, 93 people died in police or prison custody. Although this figure represents a fall of 10 from the record year of 1997 the longer-term trend reveals that since 1980 the prison population increased by 76 per cent while the number of prison deaths increased by 150 per cent. When compared with 1997, 1998 saw an increase in deaths in institutional police custody and the overall number of deaths in prison custody over the last 19 years rose from 30 in 1980 to 60 in 1998 - the second highest figure recorded. This report updates information on 1997 deaths and longer-term custodial death trends, highlighting some noticeable changes that occurred during 1998.

  19. Dalton, V., (1999) Suicide in Prison 1980 to 1998: National Overview, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 126 (August 1999), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    There have been 367 suicides in Australian prisons since 1980. Examination of the data collected by the National Deaths in Custody Monitoring and Research Program at the Institute of Criminology confirms that suicide is the leading cause of death in Australia's correctional institutions, accounting for almost half of all deaths in prisons. In more than 90 per cent of all suicide deaths the method employed was found to be hanging. The paper presents tables that breakdown the data for every jurisdiction in Australia and compares custody rates of suicide with overall community rates. This paper contains preliminary analysis of suicide in Australia's prisons over the past 19 years. Policies and procedures in place for the identification and management of inmates perceived to be "at risk" of suicide and/or self-harm are identified as a critical issue for further examination.

  20. Dalton, V., (1999) Aboriginal Deaths in Prison 1980 to 1998: National Overview, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 131 (October 1999), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    This paper draws on data collected by the National Deaths in Custody Monitoring and Research Program and summarises Aboriginal custodial mortality since 1980. Over the two decades prior to publication an average of 6.3 Aboriginal people died in prison each year, with 17 deaths in 1995 - the peak year. Among non-Aboriginal prisoners, 47 per cent of deaths were suicides and 30 per cent were due to natural causes (the remainder were accidental deaths or homicides). Among Aboriginal prisoners, there were more deaths from natural causes than from suicides over the years, but in the most recent years suicide deaths exceeded those from natural causes. In examining the data, Dalton identifies a number of key issues, the most striking of which examines Indigenous deaths in the period before the Royal Commission and the post-Royal Commission period. In the decade before the Royal Commission, 12.1 per cent of deaths in prison were of Aboriginal people. In the decade following that the percentage rose to 17.2 per cent. At June 1998, Aboriginal people comprised 18.8 per cent of the prison population; in 1988 this figure was 14.7 per cent.

  21. Dalton, V., (2000) Australian Deaths in Custody and Custody Related Police Operations 1999, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 153 (June 2000), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    In 1999, 85 people died in Australian police or prison custody - 10 less than the previous year. The number of deaths in police custody (26) was the second lowest since records were kept and the number of prison deaths overall (59) was down on the previous two years. There was an increase in the number of Indigenous institutional deaths amounting to the third highest on record. Indeed the article reports that in line with the 20-year trend Aboriginal people were significantly over-represented in the number of custodial deaths during 1999. This paper updates information on 1998 deaths and longer-term custodial death trends, as well as highlighting some of the changes that have occurred in 1999.

  22. Dalton, V., Atkinson, L., Carcach, C., McDonald, D. & Mukherjee, S., (1997) 'Trends in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Deaths in Custody and Incarceration', in Implementation of the Commonwealth Government responses to the Recommendations of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody: Annual Report 1995-96, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, Canberra.

    The fourth annual report addresses trends in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths in custody and trends in the incarceration of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in juvenile correctional institutions, police lock-ups and prisons. A total of 75 people were reported to have died during the year ended 30 June 1996. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths in all forms of custody escalated to a total of 19, a figure 46 per cent greater than reported in the preceding year. The chapter updates information provided in previous annual reports and discusses emerging trends. It also includes brief case summaries of all Aboriginal deaths in custody for the 1995-96 period. The authors emphasise that, as in previous years, Aboriginal people were heavily over-represented in the number of custodial deaths compared with their number in the community.

  23. Dalton, V., Brown, M. & McDonald, D., (1996) Australian Deaths in Custody & Custody-related Police Operations, 1995, Deaths in Custody Australia No. 12 (May 1996), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    The information presented in this paper relates to deaths in custody in Australia for the period 1 January 1995 to 31 December 1995. During this time 86 deaths were recorded. The authors present a short summary of deaths in custody since the tabling of the Royal Commission's final National Report on 9 May 1991. The total number of deaths recorded for calendar year 1995 was higher than that reported for the previous year and was only exceeded in one of the 16 years for which data was available - 1997. An important finding was that while the total number of deaths in all forms of police custody remained at the same level as the previous calendar year the 58 deaths in prison custody during 1995 represents the highest number recorded.

  24. Dalton, V. & Carcach, C., (1997) 'Trends in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Deaths in Custody and Incarceration', Vol 1 in Implementation of the Commonwealth Government Responses to the Recommendations of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody: Annual/Five Year Report 1996-97, Vols 1-3, Monitoring and Reporting Section, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, Canberra.

    This publication is the fifth report of the Commonwealth's implementation of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody's recommendations. The Institute reports on trends in Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islanders deaths in custody and incarceration as part of the responsibilities given to the Institute by the Royal Commission. These issues are specifically addressed in this report. The chapter also updates information provided in previous reports and discusses trends that have emerged in the 5 years since the Royal Commission. Although the authors reported a substantial reduction in the proportion of deaths in police custody in institutional settings, Indigenous people were over-represented in prison custody at a higher rate than the period covered by the Royal Commission.

  25. Dalton, V. & McDonald, D., (1995a) Australian Deaths in Custody & Custody-related Police Operations, 1994, Deaths in Custody Australia No. 9 (September 1995), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    This paper examines deaths in custody over a 12-month period from 1 January to 31 December 1994. Eighty such deaths occurred in Australia during this time. The authors discuss information such as Aboriginal over-representation, age and manner of death, offences and custodial status and examine trends emerging from the data. The main finding to emerge from the 1994 data was that the number of deaths during the calendar year was higher than the number reported in any of the previous calendar years. The authors show that the increase over the previous years' deaths occurred entirely among Aboriginal people in prison custody. The paper concludes that the total number of people who died in prison custody during 1994 is equal to the highest figure recorded in Australia since data were first collected in 1980.

  26. Dalton, V. & McDonald, D., (1995b) Australian Deaths in Custody & Custody-related Police Operations, 1994-1995, Deaths in Custody Australia No. 11 (December 1995), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    The information presented in this paper covers deaths in custody that occurred in Australia during the 12-month period from 1 July 1994 to 30 June 1995. During this time a total of 76 deaths in custody were reported. The authors examine the data with relation to age, cause and manner of death and highlight trends that emerged. The total number of deaths during the year was substantially lower than that reported for the previous financial year. The main finding was that Aboriginal deaths in police custody during the period under review was equal to the lowest recorded since 1980. Furthermore, no Aboriginal people died in police lockups during this time. Deaths in prison custody remained high and there was little change in the key area identified by the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody - a reduction of the over-representation of Indigenous Australians in prison.

  27. Halstead, B., (1995) Coroners' Recommendations and the Prevention of Deaths in Custody: A Victorian Case Study, Deaths in Custody Australia No. 10 (November 1995), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    The tenth paper in this series looks at the extent to which coronial inquests into deaths in custody resulted in recommendations which could potentially assist in the prevention of deaths in custody. Using Victoria as a case study the paper showed that the potential of the coroners' recommendations were not being fully realised and suggests a number of reasons for this. The author examines a range of factors which may be responsible for inhibiting the full development of the preventive potential of coronial processes, these include: historical burdens, possible conflicts and practices that assign retrospective blame rather than prospective prevention. This paper looks to possible options in promoting preventative strategies for the reduction of deaths in custody in Australia.

  28. Halstead, B., McDonald, D. & Dalton, V., (1995) Australian Deaths in Custody & Custody-related Police Operations, 1993-94, Deaths in Custody Australia No. 8 (February 1995), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    This paper focuses on deaths in custody in Australia during the 12 months up to 30 June 1994. Eighty-three such deaths were reported to have occurred during that financial year. The key finding presented in the paper was that the number of deaths of Indigenous Australians in prison during the 1993-94 year was far higher than the previous year. This factor accounts for the total numbers of deaths for this period being higher than the number reported in any of the previous three financial years. The data showed a high rate of deaths in prison custody for Aboriginal people, yet at the same time it also showed that for 1993-94 there were no Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths in police lockups.

  29. Howlett, C., (1993a) Deaths in Juvenile Detention, 1980-1992, Deaths in Custody Australia No. 3 (May 1993), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    The third paper in the series focuses on deaths in juvenile detention in Australia over the 12-year period from 1980 until the end of 1992. Nine such deaths occurred in this period. Whilst the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody produced information concerning the deaths of Aboriginal young people in juvenile detention centres between 1980 and mid-1989, similar material on non-Aboriginal juveniles had not before been available. The paper addresses that area by providing a brief statistical overview and case descriptions of the circumstances surrounding the 9 deaths. The paper also discusses deaths in juvenile detention with a particular focus on the over-representation of Aboriginal young people in the custodial death figures.

  30. Howlett, C., (1993b) Deaths of Young People in Police and Prison Custody and Juvenile Detention, 1980-1992, Deaths in Custody Australia No. 5 (August 1993), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    This paper presents statistical information on the deaths of young people in police and prison custody and juvenile detention in Australia between 1980 and 1992. This paper differs to previous papers that have also supplied information on deaths of young people in custody and juvenile detention in that it draws together information from all custodial environments. The authors examine and describe the data and present statistical information on the deaths that had occurred. During the thirteen years under review 93 young people aged less than 21 years died in custody, representing approximately 13 per cent of the total number of custodial deaths over that time. The authors conclude the paper by stating that there has been much fluctuation in the annual number of custodial deaths of young people and that no real trends can be determined.

  31. Howlett, C. & McDonald, D., (1994) Australian Deaths in Custody 1992-93, Deaths in Custody Australia No. 6 (February 1994), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    The sixth paper in this series presents information on the deaths that occurred in prison and police custody across Australia during the 12 months up to 30 June 1993. In addition, the authors present summary data from the period spanning 1980 to 1993. In the period that is the focus of this paper the number of Aboriginal deaths was lower than that of the previous two years and no Indigenous deaths were reported in police lockups. Aboriginal people remained over-represented in the number of custodial deaths. Findings show that the 72 custodial deaths in the 1992-93 year were substantially higher than the total number reported in each of the previous 2 years. The data points to the increase having occurred entirely among non-Aboriginal people.

  32. McArthur, M., Camilleri, P. & Webb, H., (1999) Strategies for Managing Suicide and Self-harm in Prisons, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 125 (August 1999), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    Past research consistently showed suicide as the leading cause of death in Australian prisons. At the time of publication the rate of suicide in prisons was estimated to have been between 2.5 and 15 times that of the general population. The concern over the suicide rate is deepened by the relatively high incidence and rate of self-harm in prison. The authors estimate that for every suicide there are 60 incidences of self-harming behaviour. Little is known about cause of suicides, or how to accurately predict their likely occurrence or manage and treat those people at risk. This paper provides an extensive review of the current Australian and international research including a summary of program initiatives and strategies for minimising self-harm.

  33. McDonald, D., (1993) National Police Custody Survey 1992: Preliminary Report, Deaths in Custody Australia No. 2 (March 1993), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    This publication provides a preliminary report on the Second National Police Custody Survey that was conducted in August 1992. The survey aimed to obtain information on the extent and nature of police custody in Australia and to monitor and evaluate the implementation of recommendations that arose from the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody. The survey showed that the level of over-representation of Aboriginal people in police custody remained high despite the commitment of all governments to reducing such disproportionate levels. The data is analysed and broken down by jurisdiction, reason for custody and by Aboriginality. It was found that nationally Aboriginal people were in custody at a rate 26 times that of non-Aboriginal people.

  34. McDonald D. & Howlett, C. (assisted by V. Dalton) (1992) Australian Deaths in Custody 1990 & 1991, Deaths in Custody Australia No. 1 (October 1992), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    The paper is the first in a series of publications to come out of the Australian Institute of Criminology's National Deaths in Custody Monitoring and Research Program. The paper updates information published by the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (RCIADIC) on custodial deaths investigated between 1980-89. Here the authors examine Australian deaths in custody that occurred during 1990 and 1991. A summary of the data is presented and the authors highlight a number of important points and discuss the implications of these findings. The main finding shows that during this period a total of 114 deaths occurred in Australian custody. Data also showed that Aboriginal people were over-represented in the number of deaths occurring in that period. The article examines trends in custodial deaths over the 12-year period, from the first year under investigation by the Royal Commission up until 1991.

  35. McDonald D. & Howlett, C. (assisted by V. Dalton) (1992) Australian Deaths in Custody 1992, Deaths in Custody Australia No. 4 (August 1993), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    This paper presents information on the deaths that occurred in police and prison custody and juvenile detention in Australia during 1992. The publication builds upon information contained in the first paper of this series that provided detailed information on the 1990 and 1991 deaths. In addition, the authors briefly summarise deaths in custody that have been documented since 1980. The report indicates that the number of custodial deaths throughout Australia in 1992 were similar to earlier years' figures. The total number of Aboriginal deaths in custody during 1992 was found to have been relatively low when compared with figures from previous years although they continued to be over-represented in the numbers of custodial deaths.

  36. McDonald, D., Walker, J., Dalton, V., Halstead, B. & Dagger, D. (1995), 'Trends in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Deaths in Custody and Incarceration', in Three Years On: Implementation of Commonwealth Government Responses to the Recommendations of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody: Annual Report 1993-94, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, Canberra.

    This chapter fulfills the Australian Institute of Criminology's responsibility to produce information about deaths in custody in Australia. The monitoring unit at the Institute is responsible for producing an annual report covering two specific areas, namely trends in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal deaths in custody and trends in the incarceration of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in prison, juvenile correctional institutions and police lockups. This chapter focuses on the most recent data, updating information presented in the 1992-93 Annual Report. The paper shows that although Aboriginal deaths in police custody remained relatively stable Aboriginal prison deaths increased substantially when compared to the previous years figures. Authors present statistical analysis of the data and case studies of the 14 Aboriginal deaths in custody that occurred during this time.

  37. Morrison, S., McDonald, D. & Dalton, V., (1994) Australian Deaths in Custody 1993, Deaths in Custody Australia No. 7 (June 1994) Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    This paper presents information on the deaths that occurred in police and prison custody throughout Australia during the 12 months up to 31 December 1993. It also provides summary data from the period beginning in 1980 up until 1993. The 73 deaths recorded in the 12 month period was substantially higher than the total number reported in any of the previous 5 years. The authors note that the increase occurred entirely among non-Aboriginal people. In addition, the authors update information on deaths in police and prison custody, the proportion of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal deaths, as well as information on characteristics such as the manner of death.

  38. Walker, J. & McDonald, D., (1995) The Over-Representation of Indigenous People in Custody in Australia, Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 47 (August 1995), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    The rates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander incarceration were compared with those of non-Indigenous people in juvenile institutions, police lockups and adult prisons. The authors explore the principal reasons for the high levels of imprisonment for Indigenous people by linking these statistics with data on offence type, sentencing, and employment and educational background. They also use demographic projections to forecast the number of Indigenous people in Australian prisons by 2011.

  39. Williams, P., (2001) Deaths in Custody: 10 Years on from the Royal Commission, Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, no. 203 (April 2001), Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.

    To commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody the Australian Institute of Criminology will publish a series of thematic research papers on deaths in custody. This Trends and Issues publication is the first paper in that series. It looks at the number and circumstances of deaths in custody for the decade examined by the Commission compared with those which have occurred in the decade since. One of the major findings shows that deaths of all persons in police custody decreased from 61 per cent of all deaths in custody between 1980 and 1999 to 18 per cent between 1990 and 1999. Whereas over the same period, deaths in prisons increased from 35 per cent to 81 per cent of all deaths in custody. While the number of Indigenous deaths remained relatively constant over the two decades the average annual rate of deaths in custody for an Indigenous person decreased slightly during the decade following the Royal Commission. The paper discusses additional findings and presents tables and figures highlighting the differences and similarities that have occurred in deaths in custody over the decades under examination.