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Aborigines

  1. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission. 1993, Annual Report 1992-93, ATSIC, Woden, ACT.

    This annual report presents a summary of major activities and achievements of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) during the financial year 1992-93. One major task for ATSIC during the financial year was administering a large part of the initial year's funds for the Government's response to the report of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (RCIADIC).

  2. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission. 1995, Recognition, Rights and Reform: Report to Government on Native Title Social Justice Measures, ATSIC, Canberra.

    There are two volumes to the Report. The first includes an overview of the main report, proposed principles for indigenous social justice and recommendations. The second volume is the report itself. The report identifies a range of outstanding needs which must be met to ensure social justice for indigenous Australians, pre-eminent of which is the improvement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander living conditions.

  3. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commission. 1993, First Report: 1993, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commission, Sydney.

    On 13 January 1993, the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Act 1986 established the position of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner. This was an example of the Commonwealth's commitment to implementing its undertakings to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people arising from the recommendations of the RCIADIC. The Office of the Commissioner will be able to focus on the extent to which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are able to exercise the basic human rights that the rest of the nation take for granted.

  4. Australian Capital Territory. Chief Minister's Department. 1995, Empowerment of Aboriginal Peoples and Torres Strait Islanders in the ACT: 1993-94 ACT Government Implementation Report, ACT Chief Minister's Department, Canberra.

    This report is the second from the ACT in response to the implementation of the recommendations from the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody. The first priority of the ACT Government's response has been involving Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders in decisions which affect them, including the implementation of the Royal Commission's report. The report outlines the Government's major initiatives for 1993-94 and action taken by the Government in response to the Royal Commission's recommendations.

  5. Bird, G., Martin, G. and Nielsen, J., eds., 1996, Majah: Indigenous Peoples and the Law, The Federation Press, Sydney.

    'Majah' means 'White boss' and is reflected in this collection, which looks at the impact of White colonialism upon Indigenous peoples. The chapters in this book, although diverse, share this common theme. They challenge the perception of Australia as a post-colonial state. Explicitly and implicitly the authors assert that Indigenous peoples in Australia remain colonised peoples . The chapter themes include colonialism, the criminal justice system and its role in maintaining White political power, the economics of colonialism, the treatment of Aborigines in Western Australia compared with that of Blacks in the West Indies, an analysis of international law, issues of White control of cultural heritage, the RCIADIC, White law and the effects of Mabo amongst other themes. It presents research which shows the continuing impact of colonialism and that in spite of the RCIADIC the numbers of Indigenous prisoners, particularly female prisoners, has increased dramatically.

  6. Brunton, Ron. 1993, Black Suffering, White Guilt: Aboriginal Disadvantage and the Royal Commission into Deaths in Custody, Institute of Public Affairs, West Perth.

    This monograph is an attempt to open up discussion on one of the most significant issues facing Australia by showing the fallacies in the conventionally accepted explanations of Aboriginal disadvantage and then to outline an alternative approach to policies on Aboriginal issues. It makes its case by focusing on the National Report of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody, because this report is the most comprehensive expression of current opinion and because of its increasing importance in legitimising particular courses of action. "Institute slates black deaths commission", according to the headline writer. "RC a waste of time and money. Aboriginal programs ill-conceived and wasteful."

  7. Butt, L. 1993, 'Repairing the Damage: The Lost Children and Deaths in Custody', Connexions, vol. 13, no. 2, March/April, pp. 13.

    Former Federal government policy was to remove Aboriginal children from their families. Link- up is a Koori organisation to help people recontact their Aboriginal families. It gives a brief account of Nancy de Vries experience of being separated. As a counsellor she expresses her concern about the impact of a death in custody on the Aboriginal community.

  8. Coalition. 1996, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs Policy, (March).

    Released in March 1993, this is the Coalition Government's policy on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs. As social justice cannot be delivered to Indigenous people until disadvantages in health, housing, education and employment and the high incarceration rates are overcome, the Coalition will make addressing Indigenous disadvantage in these areas a high priority. In relation to deaths in custody, in Government the Coalition will: organise a special summit meeting on Aboriginal Deaths in Custody and high Aboriginal incarceration rates with the State/Territory Ministers for Aboriginal Affairs, Health, and State/Territory Attorneys-General, to develop a co-ordinated approach to addressing the causes of Indigenous incarcerates rates and deaths in custody.

  9. Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation. 1995, Going Forward: Social Justice for the First Australians, A submission to the Commonwealth Government, (March), AGPS, Canberra.

    This Submission from the Aboriginal Reconciliation Council is a response to the Commonwealth Government on what measures might be appropriate to advance the cause of social justice for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The Submission contains recommendations which will help address issues of social justice and issues for the justice system for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. One of the Recommendations made in the Submission was that all governments acknowledge that implementation of the recommendations of the RCIADIC has been inadequate and that these defects be cured. Another Recommendation made by the Council was that all governments acknowledge that levels of arrest and incarceration of indigenous people, particularly young indigenous men, remain unacceptably high and that governments expand the range of alternatives to custodial punishment.

  10. Hazlehurst, K. M. 1989, 'Passion and Policy: Aboriginal Deaths in Custody in Australia 1980- 1989', in Criminology and Criminal Justice, eds Barak, G., Prof., State University of New York Press, Montgomery, Alabama.

    Discusses the history of the carnage, dispossession and discrimination of Australian Aborigines. The role of the criminal justice system and Aboriginal over-representation within that system is highlighted.

  11. Hunter, E. M. 1991, 'The Intercultural and Socio-Historical Context of Aboriginal Personal Violence in Remote Australia', Australian Psychologist, vol. 26, no. 2.

    In this article Hunter puts forward his socio-historical explanation of Aboriginal violence. He concludes that the occurrence of violence on an individual level often appears unpremeditated and random. The propensity for violence within a group, and its nature, may, however, be influenced by forces affecting that group as a whole. For Aborigines nationwide, and in particular for those in remote Australia, the dynamics of the intercultural context define those forces. Specific instances may be raised to question this and should be examined carefully, as the consequences of racially based intolerance, legislation and conflict, spreads far beyond the arena of inter-racial contact and confrontation.

  12. Hunter, E. M. 1991, 'The Social and Family Context of Aboriginal Self-Harmful Behaviour in Remote Australia', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 25, pp. 203-9.

    In an earlier paper information was presented on a series of recent Aboriginal suicides in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. In this paper the author proceeds to an examination of the social and historical context of these events, which have occurred in conjunction with increases in other violent behaviours. Drawing from information generated by a survey of a stratified random sample of Aborigines from across the region, the rapidly changing environment of childhood is discussed, with particular attention to the structural and functional changes in caretaking roles. The inter-cultural context of these, as yet, largely intra-cultural manifestations of disadvantage, are emphasised.

  13. Kamien, Max. 1993, 'Aboriginal Health: An Overview', Current Affairs Bulletin, vol. 69, no. 8, January, pp. 11-17.

    Max Kamien reviews developments in health care provision for Aboriginal Australians. The general level of Aboriginal health has improved in recent years, since the introduction of Medibank, the provision of community nursing services and the funding of Aboriginal Health Services. But problems remain. The life expectancy of Aborigines is similar to that of many Third World countries. The post-neonatal death rate and deaths through accident and respiratory and circulatory diseases are many times greater than among the non-Aboriginal population. Further improvement must look beyond piecemeal approaches for economic answers.

  14. Moores, Irene and the Aboriginal Deaths in Custody Watch Committee. 1995, Voices of Aboriginal Australia: Past, Present, Future, Butterfly Books, Springwood, NSW.

    The book was compiled by Irene Moss with the assistance of members of the NSW Aboriginal Deaths in Custody Watch Committee. The purposes of the book are to enable the voices of Aboriginal Australia to be heard nationally and internationally; to be a medium to tell of the determination to end the cruelty, injustice, discrimination and paternalism which has caused untold suffering for over 200 years; and to provide much needed funds for the work of the NSW Aboriginal Deaths in Custody Watch Committee. The voices in the book show the oppression which Aboriginal peoples continue to experience, and the renewed Indigenous culture which they sustain against pressures of assimilation and dependence on government support. The themes presented range from the frontier battles in the Northern Territory earlier this century and the campaign for Aboriginal citizenship in 1938, to the struggle for land rights raised by the Tent Embassy since 1972 and the vital efforts now needed to prevent more Aboriginal deaths in custody.

  15. New South Wales Aboriginal Legal Service. 1993, Deaths in Custody, for Public Seminar on Deaths in Custody, (29 September), by The Institute of Criminology, The University of Sydney, at the State Library, NSW.

    This paper asks the question: 'Has there been any discernible changes in the attitudes towards Aboriginal people or the conditions in which Aboriginal people live following upon the investigations and study of the Royal Commission, such that has led, or will lead, to a reduction in the number of Aboriginal people dying in custody?' Although the paper says that any examination of the progress and implementation of these recommendations leads to the answer 'no', it also points out that there have been a number of new initiatives over the last two and a half years. Examples of these new initiatives and positive changes are discussed including coronial practices and police attitudes. However, the conclusion is made that although the implementation of the Commission's recommendations may ameliorate problems and improve the procedures that deal with Aboriginal people in the criminal justice system and how deaths in custody may be investigated, there is nevertheless a psyche that has given rise to the process of colonialisation which remains entrenched with Australian society and that it would be impossible for any Royal Commission to correct that sickness. Address to a Public Seminar Convened by the Institute of Criminology, The University of Sydney, on 29 September 1993.

  16. Pattel-Gray, A. 1991, Through Aboriginal Eyes: The Cry From the Wilderness, WCC Publications, Geneva.

    This book highlights the atrocities which have been and are being perpetrated on the indigenous people of this land.

  17. Reser, Joseph P. 1991, 'The 'Socio-Historical' Argument and Constructions of 'Aboriginal Violence': A Critical Review of Hunter (1991)', Australian Psychologist, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 209-14.

    This article is a critical review of Hunter's (1991) socio-historical explanation of Aboriginal violence. The article is faulted on a number of counts, including the explanatory schema provided, the logic of the larger argument, the simplistic casting of psychological and social science understandings of violent behaviour and intercultural conflict, confounded levels of analysis, critical literature omissions, and with respect to the account provided of another culture's experience. The conclusion of the review is that Hunter's analysis does not provide an acceptable or useful social science account of intercultural or intracultural 'violence in Aboriginal society. An alternative constructionist framework is suggested which acknowledges the cultural relativity and inherent attributional biases of such 'socio-historical' accounts of other culture experiences such as contact history and violence.

  18. Wilson, P. 1982, Black Death White Hands, George Allen and Unwin, Sydney.

    Traces the historical and cultural forces behind the violent pattern of human destruction - manslaughter, alcoholism, self-mutilation and death from disease - in areas of direct government responsibility. It argues that forced resettlement of black Australians on reserves, and the paternalism inherent in the white laws and the white bureaucrats who administer these reserves, have led directly to appalling and continuing carnage. This account of life and death on the reserves provides another compelling argument for an end to paternalism and exploitation. It presents another window into the personal and political condition of the original Australians today. Origins in research conducted on the trial of Alwyn Peter, including an extensive resource and note section at the end of the book.

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